Types Of Flu Vaccines For People With Heart Disease
- Flu shots are approved for use in people with heart disease and certain other health conditions. Flu shots have a long, established safety record in people with heart disease.
- The live attenuated influenza vaccine or the nasal spray vaccine, is an option for people who are not pregnant and who are 2 through 49 years old. But, people with some chronic medical conditions should generally not get LAIV.
Get pneumococcal vaccines.
- Pneumococcal pneumonia is an example of a serious flu-related complication that can cause death.
- People who have heart disease should also be up to date with pneumococcal vaccination to protect against pneumococcal disease, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and bloodstream infections.
- You can get either Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine when you get a flu vaccine.
- Talk to your health care provider to find out which pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for you.
Is There A Causal Relationship
Three case-control studies, 1 large cohort study, and 1 pilot, randomized clinical trial have suggested that influenza vaccination has a protective role against CHD . It is important to clarify, however, whether a true cause-and-effect relationship exists or whether these results were due to chance, a bias, or a simple noncausal association.
Fig. 1 Studies of influenza vaccination and cardiovascular outcomes.
Treacherous philosophical issues regarding the nature of causality have long been recognized and were detailed by Hume in the 18th century. Various criteria have been proposed to help assess possible causal relationships in epidemiologic studies. Although these criteria cannot be considered decisive in differentiating between causal and noncausal associations, they can help support the evidence for a causal relationship instead of one based on chance, bias, or confounding factors. These criteria were published in the United States Surgeon General’s 1st report on smoking and health and were later improved by Sir Bradford Hill and Mervyn Susser. In the following paragraphs, we briefly appraise the relationship between influenza and CHD, on the basis of Hill’s criteria of causality.
TABLE III. Hill’s Criteria for Causality
Infection Inflammation And Atherosclerosis
The role of infectious agents in atherosclerosis has been recognized for more than a century. William Osler was one of the first to propose a major role for acute infection in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the early 20th century, a few pioneer scientists used several infectious agents to induce atherosclerosis in animal models. By the late 1970s, scientists began to study the role of herpesviruses and Chlamydia pneumoniae and, later, of Helicobacter pylori, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, enterovirus, and a growing list of other agents in atherogenesis . This effort coincided with the emergence of new evidence pointing to atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease. The role of infection in endothelial injury and vascular wall inflammation came under scrutiny. Many infectious agents have been investigated in this regard, but none of them has proved to play a causative and specific role. Chlamydia pneumoniae has been studied the most extensively, but the results of large clinical trials of antibiotics against this disease have been largely disappointing.
TABLE I. Infectious Agents Implicated in Atherosclerosis
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Heart Failure Treatment Is A Team Effort
Heart failure management is a team effort, and you are the key player on the team. Your heart doctor will prescribe your medications and manage other medical problems. Other team members — including nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, exercise specialists, and social workers — will help you achieve success. But it is up to YOU to take your medications, make dietary changes, live a healthy lifestyle, keep your follow-up appointments, and be an active member of the team.
If you notice anything unusual, don’t wait until your next appointment to discuss it with your doctor. Call them right away if you have:
- Unexplained weight gain
- Swelling in your ankles, feet, legs, or belly that gets worse
- Shortness of breath that gets worse or happens more often, especially if you wake up feeling that way
- Bloating with a loss of appetite or nausea
- Extreme fatigue or more trouble finishing your daily activities
- A lung infection or a cough that gets worse
- Fast heart rate
- New irregular heartbeat
What Are The Types Of Heart Failure
Systolic dysfunction happens when the heart muscle doesn’t contract with enough force, so there is less oxygen-rich blood pumped throughout the body.
Diastolic dysfunction happens when the heart contracts normally, but the ventricles donât relax properly or are stiff, and less blood enters the heart during normal filling.
A calculation done during an echocardiogram, called the ejection fraction , is used to measure how well your heart pumps with each beat to help determine if systolic or diastolic dysfunction is present. Your doctor can discuss which condition you have.
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How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed
Your doctor will ask you many questions about your symptoms and medical history. Youâll be asked about any conditions you have that may cause heart failure . Youâll be asked if you smoke, take drugs, drink alcohol , and about what drugs you take.
Youâll also get a complete physical exam. Your doctor will listen to your heart and look for signs of heart failure as well as other illnesses that may have caused your heart muscle to weaken or stiffen.
Your doctor may also order other tests to determine the cause and severity of your heart failure. These include:
Other tests may be ordered, depending on your condition.
How Dispatchhealth Can Help
DispatchHealths on-demand services are a valuable resource for anyone with underlying health concerns, providing an urgent healthcare alternative that comes to your place of need. We treat people of all ages with an array of complicated medical issuesincluding the flu and congestive heart failurein the comfort of their homes, doing away with transportation, waiting rooms, and impersonal healthcare. Prepared to provide acute in-house medical care, DispatchHealth can address your urgent care needs without a disruptive medical experience. With access to nearly all of the tools and technologies found in an ER, our medical teams will provide you a streamlined service that is just as effective and at one-tenth of the out-of-pocket cost.
DispatchHealth is here for you this flu season and can also test for COVID-19 as well as treat and support COVID-19 patients, personalizing acute healthcare services to meet your needs. To request care, simply contact us via phone, mobile app, or through our website.
DispatchHealth does not currently offer the flu shot or other immunizations.
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Evidence Grows Stronger For Covid Vaccine Link To Heart Issue Cdc Says
A higher-than-usual number of cases of a type of heart inflammation has been reported following Covid-19 vaccination, especially among young men following their second dose of an mRNA vaccine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Thursday.
Overall, 226 cases of myocarditis or pericarditis after vaccination in people younger than age 30 have been confirmed, Dr. Tom Shimabukuro, deputy director of the CDC’s Immunization Safety Office, said during a presentation to a Food and Drug Administration advisory group. Further investigation is needed, however, to confirm whether the vaccination was the cause of the heart problem.
Normally, fewer than 100 cases would be expected for this age group.
Teenagers and people in their early 20s accounted for more than half of the myocarditis cases reported to the CDC’s safety monitoring systems following Covid-19 vaccination, despite representing a fraction of people who have received the shots.
“We clearly have an imbalance there,” Shimabukuro said.
What Is Heart Failure
Heart failure doesnât mean the heart has stopped working. Rather, it means that the heart works less efficiently than normal. Due to various possible causes, blood moves through the heart and body at a slower rate, and pressure in the heart increases. As a result, the heart canât pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body’s needs.
The chambers of the heart may respond by stretching to hold more blood to pump through the body or by becoming stiff and thickened. This helps to keep the blood moving, but the heart muscle walls may eventually weaken and become unable to pump as efficiently. The kidneys may respond by causing the body to retain fluid and salt. If fluid builds up in the arms, legs, ankles, feet, lungs, or other organs, the body becomes congested. Congestive heart failure is the term used to describe the condition.
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Symptoms And Consequences Of Chf
Signs and symptoms of heart failure may include:
- Shortness of breath when lying flat or while moving
- Cough or wheezing
- Swelling in the abdomen, feet, ankle, or legs
As CHF progresses, you may notice it becoming more and more challenging to exercise and complete your normal daily tasks. Even walking across your home may become difficult because of problems moving oxygen through the body.
Flu Causing Heart Attack In Some Patients
This post is available in: Spanish
Despite a difficult season, most people experiencing this years flu body aches, cough, sore throat and congestion feel better in a week or two. In more severe cases, the flu virus can lead to complications, such as respiratory infections or pneumonia. And now research is confirming the flu can also lead to heart attack, according to a study published recently in the New England Journal of Medicine .
Over the last few weeks, weve been seeing a lot of patients with myocardial infarctions and positive cardiac enzymes, said Harry Aldrich, M.D., medical director of cardiology with Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute at South Miami Hospital. This study validates the anecdotal knowledge that cardiologists have long experienced during flu seasons.
The research study, conducted in Canada, found hospital admissions for myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, were six times higher within the first week of testing positive for the flu. The positive flu results were from respiratory specimens, allowing the researchers to mark a significant association between acute respiratory infections and heart attack.
Most of the patients who have a heart attack after the flu have underlying heart disease that automatically puts them at risk of more complications, Dr. Aldrich says.
Heart Disease and Flu
The other complication from flu that can seriously affect heart disease patients is pneumonia, he says.
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Flu & People With Heart Disease Or History Of Stroke
People with heart disease and those who have had a stroke are at higher risk of developing serious flu complications. If you have heart disease, or have had a stroke, it is especially important that you get a flu vaccine every flu season to protect against flu and its potentially serious complications.
Among adults hospitalized with flu during recent flu seasons, heart disease was one of the most common chronic conditionsabout half of adults hospitalized with flu have heart disease. Studies have shown that flu illness is associated with an increase in heart attacks and stroke. A 2018 studyexternal icon found that the risk of having a heart attack was 6 times higher within a week of a confirmed flu infection. These findings were most pronounced for older adults and those experiencing their first heart attack. Additionally, a 2020 studyexternal icon that looked at more than 80,000 U.S. adults hospitalized with flu over eight flu seasons found that sudden, serious heart complications occurred in one out of every eight patients .
Many Other Heart Conditions Can Ultimately Lead To Heart Failure
All of us lose some blood-pumping ability in our hearts as we age, but heart failure results from the added stress of health conditions that either damage the heart or make it work too hard. All of the lifestyle factors that increase your risk of heart attack and stroke smoking, being overweight, eating foods high in fat and cholesterol and physical inactivity can also contribute to heart failure.
Learn more about what you can do to reduce your risk for heart failure by making lifestyle changes that last.
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How Does The Flu Cause Cardiac Death
Flu breakouts are a major cause of mortality and morbidity. In the United States, the flu account s for more than 120,000 hospitalizations. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that 36,000 people die from the respiratory and cardiac problems related to the flu. The all-cause death related to the flu is another 51,000 deaths in the United States.
These deaths are mainly due to the increased aging of the population, and the virus strains are becoming deadlier. According to researchers, the cardiac-flu death toll maybe even higher. This is because doctors may not consider that the flu was the trigger for these cardiac events.
According to researchers, the correct estimation of flu deaths is around 90,000.
American Heart Association News Stories
American Heart Association News covers heart disease, stroke and related health issues. Not all views expressed in American Heart Association News stories reflect the official position of the American Heart Association. Statements, conclusions, accuracy and reliability of studies published in American Heart Association scientific journals or presented at American Heart Association scientific meetings are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the American Heart Associations official guidance, policies or positions.
Copyright is owned or held by the American Heart Association, Inc., and all rights are reserved. Permission is granted, at no cost and without need for further request, for individuals, media outlets, and non-commercial education and awareness efforts to link to, quote, excerpt or reprint from these stories in any medium as long as no text is altered and proper attribution is made to American Heart Association News.
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Flu And Heart Disease: The Surprising Connection That Should Convince You To Schedule Your Shot
If you have heart disease or risk factors for heart disease, you already know about the increased risk of heart attack and stroke. But did you know that coming down with the flu can substantially increase the risk of a serious or even fatal cardiac event? Or that getting the influenza vaccine can substantially reduce that risk, even if you do wind up contracting the seasonal virus?
Probably not, if annual influenza vaccination rates are any indication, especially if you’re under the age of 65. According to a Houston Methodist review published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, Americans with heart disease continue to have low vaccination rates every year despite higher rates of death and complications from influenza.
The flu vaccination rate for American adults who are less than 65 years of age and have heart disease is less than 50%, compared to 80% in older adults with heart disease.
“It seems that younger Americans with high-risk conditions have not gotten the same memo that their older counterparts have received about the importance of getting the influenza vaccine,” says Dr. Priyanka Bhugra, internal medicine specialist at Houston Methodist and lead author of the JAHA article. “That’s dangerous, considering people with heart conditions are particularly vulnerable to influenza-related heart complications, whether they’ve reached retirement age or not.”
Rsv Affects Nearly All Children But Reinfections In Adulthood Can Have Important Repercussions For Those With And Without Preexisting Cvd New Research Shows
Not unlike influenza, the respiratory syncytial virus appears to have detrimental effects on the heart including an increased risk of cardiovascular complications among individuals with and without preexisting cardiovascular disease, according to a new review.
For those without underlying heart disease, approximately one in five adults can develop cardiovascular complications, including congestive heart failure and MI, following hospitalization for confirmed RSV infection, say experts.
Its a very, very common virus and little kids can become critically ill from it, senior author Helen Keipp Talbot, MD , told TCTMD. Its one of the leading causes of bronchiolitis in children. For some reason, we never develop full immunity. Were at risk of developing it over and over again throughout our lifetime, but usually as an adult its quite minor. Its like having a cold or allergies. So we go from this period when youre a child of being critically ill to where its just like a common cold. As you continue to age, though, RSV can cause worse illness and hospitalization.
In their review, which is published April 2, 2018, in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Talbot and colleagues point out that most of the research to date has focused on influenza and the associated risks of cardiovascular events, but other respiratory tract illnesses, including RSV, have also been associated with cardiac complications.
Prolonged or Recurrent Inflammatory Response
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Cytokine Storm: A Serious Coronavirus Complication
Most serious of all, Michos says, is the possibility of the immune system launching an attack on the invading virus that is so severe that it destroys healthy tissues.
When responding to infection with the new coronavirus, the body releases a flood of proteins called cytokines that help cells communicate with one another and fight the invaders.
In some people, perhaps due to a genetic difference, this normal defensive event is exaggerated, leaving them vulnerable to a cytokine storm. In a cytokine storm, the immune system response causes inflammation that can overwhelm the body, destroying healthy tissue and damaging organs such as the kidneys, liver and heart.
A cytokine storm and its resulting heart damage can also affect the hearts rhythm. Serious ventricular arrhythmias due to a cytokine storm can be catastrophic, Michos says.
A cytokine storm is difficult to survive. Current research is exploring the possible benefit of using immune-suppressing drugs to treat patients with COVID-19 who experience this serious complication.