Extra Doses Of Vaccine Antigens
Administering extra antigens contained in a combination vaccine should be avoided in most situations . Using combination vaccines containing certain antigens not indicated at the time of administration to a patient might be justified when 1) the extra antigen is not contraindicated, 2) products that contain only the needed antigens are not readily available, and 3) potential benefits to the patient outweigh the potential risk for adverse events associated with the extra antigens. An extra dose of many live-virus vaccines and Hib or hepatitis B vaccine has not been found to be harmful . However, the risk for an adverse event might increase when extra doses are administered at an earlier time than the recommended interval for certain vaccines .
A vaccination provider might not have vaccines available that contain only the antigens needed as indicated by a childs vaccination history. Alternatively, although the indicated vaccines might be available, the provider might prefer to use a combination vaccine to reduce the required number of injections. In such cases, the benefits and risks of administering the combination vaccine with an unneeded antigen should be carefully considered and discussed with the patient or parent.
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule United States 2011
Additional information is available as follows: schedule at information about adult vaccination at ACIP statements for specific vaccines at and reporting adverse events at or by telephone, 800-822-7967.
Changes for 2011
Challenges Opportunities And Potential Strategies For Improvement
From this study, we learned that there is a significant need to develop strategies so teens are offered HPV vaccinations whenever they come to the office. This has become even more important amid the COVID-19 pandemic, when many teens may have fallen behind on their vaccinations overall. With public health messaging emphasizing the particular importance of the flu vaccine this year, now is an opportune time to leverage flu vaccine visits for delivery of the HPV vaccine and any other due vaccinations.
With public health messaging emphasizing the particular importance of the flu vaccine this year, now is an opportune time to leverage flu vaccine visits for delivery of the HPV vaccine and any other due vaccinations.
Though these difficulties may seem daunting, strategies exist to overcome them. Some potential solutions I recommend considering include:
- Working with practice leadership to create standing orders for vaccines that allow qualified health care professionals to give due vaccines without individual orders from a pediatrician or nurse practitioner.
- Easily visible vaccine prompts that make it clear to the clinician which vaccines are due at each visit. Prompts may be generated by the EHR or by a member of the staff .
- Training providers on concise communication techniques that they can use to talk to hesitant families.
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Considerations For Getting A Covid
Its safe for your health care provider to administer a COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as other vaccines. If youre 12 years of age or older, you may get the flu shot at the same time as a COVID-19 vaccine. You may also get it any time before or after you receive the flu shot.
For children aged 5 to 11, the National Advisory Council on Immunization recommends a 14-day interval between a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines. This is to help better monitor for possible side effects from COVID-19 vaccines. Provinces and territories will decide on an interval for this age group as part of their vaccination programs.
Talk to a health care provider or consult your provincial or territorial public health authority for the latest guidance.
Learn more about:
Unknown Or Uncertain Vaccination Status
Vaccination providers frequently encounter persons who do not have adequate documentation of vaccinations. With the exception of influenza vaccine and PPSV23, providers should only accept written, dated records as evidence of vaccination self-reported doses of influenza vaccine and PPSV23 are acceptable . The rationale for acceptance for influenza vaccine is that the time period of recall is one year or less, making it very likely that correct recall will occur. The rationale for acceptance for PPSV23 is high frequency of vaccination leads to an increased rate of local reactions due to the reactogenicity of this vaccine. Although vaccinations should not be postponed if records cannot be found, an attempt to locate missing records should be made by contacting previous health care providers, reviewing state or local IISs, and searching for a personally held record. If records cannot be located within a reasonable time, these persons should be considered susceptible and started on the age-appropriate vaccination schedule. Serologic testing for immunity is an alternative to vaccination for certain antigens . However, commercial serologic testing might not always be sufficiently sensitive or standardized for detection of vaccine-induced immunity , and research laboratory testing might not be readily available.
Based on expert opinion.
TABLE 3-1. Recommended and minimum ages and intervals between vaccine doses,,,
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Spacing Of Multiple Doses Of The Same Antigen
Vaccination providers should adhere to recommended vaccination schedules . Administration at recommended ages and in accordance with recommended intervals between doses of multidose antigens provides optimal protection.
Administration of doses of a multidose vaccine using intervals that are shorter than recommended might be necessary in certain circumstances, such as impending international travel or when a person is behind schedule on vaccinations but needs rapid protection. In these situations, an accelerated schedule can be implemented using intervals between doses that are shorter than intervals recommended for routine vaccination . The accelerated or minimum intervals and ages for scheduling catch-up vaccinations. Vaccine doses should not be administered at intervals less than these minimum intervals or at an age that is younger than the minimum age.*
Certain vaccines produce increased rates of local or systemic reactions in certain recipients when administered more frequently than recommended . Careful record keeping, maintenance of patient histories, use of immunization information systems , and adherence to recommended schedules can decrease the incidence of such reactions without adversely affecting immunity.
How Long After Receiving The Hpv Vaccine Does It Take For The Vaccine To Work
The immune system takes one to two weeks to generate immunity to vaccines or infections. In the case of HPV vaccine, the first dose generates a primary immune response, so people will have some immunity, but protection can vary from one person to another. The last dose is important because it enhances the memory immune response. A person will have the greatest protection beginning about one to two weeks after receiving their last dose of the vaccine.
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Groups Who Should Especially Get The Vaccine
The flu shot can protect you against the flu. Because of this, it can reduce your chances of being infected with COVID-19 and the flu at the same time. This can lead to serious complications. You should especially receive the flu vaccine this season if youre:
- at high risk of severe COVID-19 related illness
- capable of spreading the flu to those at high risk of severe illness related to COVID-19
The flu vaccine is especially important for the following groups.
General Principles For Vaccine Scheduling
Optimal response to a vaccine depends on multiple factors, including the type of vaccine, age of the recipient, and immune status of the recipient. Recommendations for the age at which vaccines are administered are influenced by age-specific risks for disease, age-specific risks for complications, age-specific responses to vaccination, and potential interference with the immune response by passively transferred maternal antibodies. Vaccines are generally recommended for members of the youngest age group at risk for experiencing the disease for which vaccine efficacy and safety have been demonstrated.
Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids require booster doses to maintain protective antibody concentrations . Unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines do not induce T-cell memory, and additional doses might increase the duration of protection. Conjugation with a protein carrier improves the effectiveness of polysaccharide vaccines by inducing T-lymphocytedependent immunologic function . Many vaccines that stimulate both cell-mediated immunity and neutralizing antibodies can usually induce prolonged immunity, even if antibody titers decline over time . Subsequent exposure to such viruses usually results in a rapid anamnestic antibody response without viremia.
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Conjugate Vaccine Carrier Proteins
Protein conjugates used in Hib conjugate vaccines produced in the United States include tetanus toxoid which is also used as a component of DTaP and Tdap vaccines . Simultaneous or sequential vaccination with Hib and these tetanus-toxoid containing vaccines is recommended when both are indicated . MCV4 and PCV13 both contain diphtheria-toxoid conjugates. There has been concern about simultaneous administration of vaccines containing like conjugates. One brand of MCV4, MenACWY-D , demonstrates reduced immunogenicity of the antibody response to Streptococcal pneumonia strains when administered simultaneously with PCV13 compared with separate administration. It is recommended to space these vaccines by 28 days in a person with anatomic asplenia . Simultaneous or sequential vaccination of MCV4-CRM , PCV13, and Tdap , all of which contain diphtheria toxoid, is not associated with reduced immunogenicity or increase in local adverse events.
Cdcs Recommended Childhood Vaccine Schedule Ensures Children Get The Best Protection During The Many Different Stages In Growth And Development
From the moment babies are born, they are exposed to numerous bacteria and viruses on a daily basis. Eating food introduces new bacteria into the body numerous bacteria live in the mouth and nose and an infant places his or her hands or other objects in his or her mouth hundreds of times every hour, exposing the immune system to still more germs. When a child has a cold, he or she is exposed to up to 10 antigens, and exposure to strep throat is about 25 to 50 antigens. Each vaccine in the childhood vaccination schedule has between 1-69 antigens. A child who receives all the recommended vaccines in the 2018 childhood immunization schedule may be exposed to up to 320 antigens through vaccination by the age of 2.
In fact, a 1994 report from the Institute of Medicine, Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccinesexternal icon, states: In the face of these normal events, it seems unlikely that the number of separate antigens contained in childhood vaccines would represent an appreciable added burden on the immune system that would be immunosuppressive.
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Hpv Testing And Treatment
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a helpful resource for understanding Pap and HPV tests.
What tests can a woman have related to HPV?
Two tests for women are available:
- Pap test A Pap test is done by scraping some cells from the cervix and examining them microscopically. A normal result means your cells looked as expected an abnormal result means that the cells appeared to have undergone some changes. This does not mean you have cervical cancer. In some cases the cell changes are minor and will return to normal when tested in the future. In other cases the changes are more dramatic and need to be monitored more closely.
- HPV test The HPV test determines if the human papillomavirus is present in the cervix.
Find out if you qualify for free or reduced cost screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and where near you offers the program.
Can HPV tests replace Pap tests?
No, HPV tests should not replace routine Pap tests for two reasons:
Is there a test to determine if I have HPV?
When a person is tested for STDs is HPV testing included?
I got all necessary doses of the HPV vaccine. Do I still need to get Pap tests?
Questions About Hpv Vaccine Safety
I dont want to get the HPV vaccine for my child because I have heard that all of the safety studies were completed by the vaccine manufacturer. Is this true?
Vaccine safety is studied by many, many groups not just those who manufacture vaccines. The FDA reviews all data associated with studies completed by vaccine manufacturers as well as visiting manufacturing sites and continuing to monitor the vaccine as long as it is being made. Additionally, the CDC has systems in place to monitor vaccine safety, including:
- Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System which allows anyone to report side effects, allowing CDC scientists to watch for trends.
- Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaboration with eight large healthcare organizations from various parts of the United States. Health records are monitored for vaccine receipt and illnesses to study vaccine safety.
- Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project is a national group of vaccine experts from the CDC, seven medical research centers, and other experts who conduct research around specific vaccine safety concerns, provide consultations for individual healthcare providers on specific patients, and review adverse event data. Vaccine manufacturers do not have a role in these studies.
Can the HPV vaccine cause cancer?
No. Because the HPV vaccine is made using only a single protein from each type of the virus, it cant cause HPV infection, and, therefore, it cant cause cervical cancer or other cancers.
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Can Flu Vaccine Visits Provide An Opportunity To Increase Hpv Vaccination Rates
Human papillomavirus causes more than 30,000 cases of cancer in the U.S. each year. Despite the availability of a safe, long-lasting, and highly effective vaccination, uptake of the HPV vaccine is substantially lower than other adolescent immunizations like the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines. With many individuals currently experiencing delays in routine health care due to the COVID-19 pandemic, HPV vaccination rates have taken a further hit.
Simultaneous vaccination, the delivery of multiple vaccines during the same doctors office visit, is one important strategy to improve vaccine coverage. This practice is recommended because it ensures that patients get all due vaccines in fewer visits, minimizing the number of times they need to return to a providers office to stay up-to-date. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that the HPV vaccination rate among teenage girls would nearly double if the HPV vaccine was routinely given at the same visits when another vaccine was administered.
Us Vaccine Guidelines For Flu Hpv Updated
CDC panel revises immunization advisory for vaccines affecting adults
TUESDAY, Feb. 7, 2017 — Roll up your sleeves, America. A national advisory panel of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has released its 2017 advisory for recommended shots affecting adults.
This year’s advisory revises guidance on seasonal flu shots by eliminating nasal flu vaccines and modifying flu-shot advice for people with egg allergy. It also tweaks recommendations for vaccines against human papillomavirus , hepatitis B and meningococcal disease.
Doctors use the annually updated vaccine schedule to ensure that patients receive the right vaccines for their age, medical condition and other risk factors. The entire list includes 13 vaccinations.
“All adults need immunizations to help them prevent getting and spreading serious disease that could result in poor health, missed work, medical bills, and not being able to care for family,” said the report’s lead author, Dr. David Kim. He is deputy associate director for adult immunizations in the CDC’s Immunization Services Division.
The CDC sets the adult immunization schedule based on recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices , a group of medical and public health experts whose advice reflects the latest science.
Here are the major changes you need to know about:
Last year, people with more serious egg allergy were advised to stick with an egg-free flu vaccine, she explained.
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Why The Recommendations Changed
Both the CDC and AAP say safety data and a need to catch up children and teens on missed vaccinations played a role.
“The AAP supports giving other childhood and adolescent immunizations at the same time as COVID-19 vaccines, particularly for children and teens who are behind on their immunizations, the AAPs statement reads. Between the substantial data collected on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines, and the extensive experience with non-COVID-19 vaccines which shows the immune response and side effects are generally similar when vaccines are given together as when they are administered alone, the benefits of co-administration and timely catch up on vaccinations outweigh any theoretical risk.
Woodworth also said that updated co-administration recommendations may facilitate catch up vaccination of adolescents. She cited data that showed the administration of many other vaccines has declined during the pandemic.
Specifically, vaccine orders from providers were down 11.7 million doses as of May 2, 2021 when compared with 2019. The gap was largest in vaccines usually given to teens, including:
- The Tdap vaccine
- HPV vaccine
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine
Different Childhood Vaccines Can Be Given At The Same Time
Many vaccines are recommended early in life to protect young children from dangerous infectious diseases. In order to reduce the number of shots a child receives in a doctors visit, some vaccines are offered as combination vaccines. A combination vaccine is two or more different vaccines that have been combined into a single shot. Combination vaccines have been in use in the United States since the mid-1940s. Examples of combination vaccines are: DTap , trivalent IPV , MMR , DTap-Hib, and Hib-Hep B.
Often, more than one shot will be given during the same doctors visit, usually in separate limbs . For example, a baby might get DTaP in one arm or leg and IPV in another arm or leg during the same visit.
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