Tuesday, March 21, 2023

Children’s Nasal Flu Vaccine

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Safety And Side Effects

Flu Vaccine for Children & Flu Shot Side Effects

Side effects associated with the vaccine are:

Very common

  • runny or stuffy nose

Common :

  • high temperature

Uncommon :

  • nose bleeds
  • rash
  • allergic reactions

Additional information about vaccine side effects, anaphylaxis and adverse reactions can be found here.

There is no evidence that healthy unvaccinated people can catch flu from the nasal flu spray .

It is known that vaccinated children shed the virus for a few days after vaccination . However, the vaccine virus is weakened, and so it is much less able to spread from person to person than flu viruses that circulate during the flu season, and it cannot grow inside the body. The amount of virus that children shed is normally below the levels needed to pass on infection to others. The virus does not survive for long outside the body.

It is therefore not necessary for children to be excluded from school during the period when the vaccine is being given. The only exception is the very small number of children who are extremely immunocompromised . These children are usually advised not to attend school anyway, because of the higher risk of being in contact with infections that circulate in schools.

The nasal flu spray should not be given to anyone who is severely immunodeficient due to a medical condition or treatment with an immunosuppressive therapy such as:

This is because the weakened viruses in the vaccine could replicate too much and cause infection.

Can The Flu Vaccine Give Your Children Flu

The nasal spray flu vaccine for children contains live but weakened strains of the flu virus. It cant cause flu in children with a healthy immune system.

Children can shed small amounts of the virus after having the vaccine. However, the shed virus doesnt survive for long and because its weakened, it cant cause flu if it’s picked up by someone with a healthy immune system, such as other children in school who aren’t having the vaccine.

The nasal flu vaccine cant cause flu in children with a healthy immune system.

There is a theoretical risk that shed virus could cause flu in someone with a very weak immune system, for example people who are in isolation after a bone marrow transplant. Children whove had the vaccine should avoid close contact with people who are severely immunocompromised for one to two weeks after having the vaccine. Children who live with someone who has a very weak immune system should be given the flu jab instead.

The flu vaccine will only protect against flu caused by the strains of the influenza virus closely related to those found in the vaccine. It wont prevent flu caused by strains that are not in the vaccine, or flu-like illnesses caused by other germs.

Which Children Will Be Offered The Flu Vaccine

As part of the childhood immunisation schedule, all children aged two or three years will be offered the nasal spray flu vaccine by their GP.

Children in school years reception to year five will be offered the vaccine in school by the school nursing team, as will all primary school-aged children in former primary school pilot areas. Children in these age groups who are being home-schooled will be offered the vaccine by their GP.

In some parts of the country other school-aged children will also be offered the vaccine. The flu programme is being gradually extended each year until it includes all children up to 17 years of age.

all children aged two or three years will be offered the nasal spray flu vaccine by their GP.

A yearly flu vaccine is also recommended for all children older than six months of age who have an underlying health condition that increases their risk of flu complications, such as diabetes, HIV infection, a weakened immune system, or long-term heart, kidney, liver, neurological or lung disease, including asthma.

Children aged between six months and two years who have any of these long-term health conditions will be offered the injected flu vaccine, because the nasal spray flu vaccine can cause wheezing in this age group.

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Flu Vaccines Are Very Safe

Flu vaccines have a good safety record. Hundreds of millions of Americans have safely received flu vaccines for more than 50 years, and there has been extensive research supporting the safety of flu vaccines.

Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. When they occur, flu vaccine side effects are generally mild and go away on their own within a few days.

Whats In The Nasal Flu Vaccine Exactly

Nasal spray flu vaccine

The nasal flu vaccine contains small amounts of attenuated or weakened flu virus. In healthy children, this then stimulates immunity to flu but doesnt cause a flu infection.

Other ingredients include water and, used to keep the vaccine stable, sucrose, dipotassium phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, gelatine, arginine hydrochloride and monosodium glutamate monohydrate. These are only present in tiny amounts and, despite their long names, are chemicals we already have in our bodies or consume regularly.

The gelatine is a hydrolysed gelatine derived from pork but highly purified so that no porcine DNA remains. If you dont want your child to have the nasal flu vaccine because of this, either for religious reasons or because your child is vegan, then the injectable flu vaccination is an alternative.

Its also important to know that the vaccine is manufactured using a technology that involves eggs, so there is also a very small amount of ovalbumin present1. The JCVI has said that most children with egg allergy can still safely have the nasal flu vaccine2 but if your child has a severe allergy to eggs or youre worried, please speak to your GP.

There may also be traces of gentamicin in the vaccine, an antibiotic that is used in the manufacturing process to stop the vaccine becoming contaminated with bacteria. So, if your child has an allergy to gentamicin, they will be offered an alternative vaccine.

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Naci Influenza Working Group

Members: I Gemmill , L Cochrane, N Dayneka, R Harrison, K Klein, D Kumar, J Langley, J McElhaney, A McGeer, D Moore, S Smith, and B Warshawsky.

Former member: M Lavoie.

Liaison representatives: L Grohskopf .

Ex-officio representatives: C Bancej , P Wolfe-Roberge , and J Xiong .

Former ex-officio representative: K Watkins .

Is There A Flu Jab For Children

There is a flu vaccine given as a nasal spray for children aged 2 -11 years and young adults aged 12-17 years with a long term health condition When receiving the vaccine, your child will have the spray squirted up each of their nostrils. This process is quick and painless and unlike other vaccinations doesnt require any needles!

The nasal spray is only licensed for children older than two, and it may not be suitable for all children. If your child cant have the nasal spray, they can get the flu vaccine as an injection instead.

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The Shot Also Protects Everyone Around Your Kids

The flu can lead to pneumonia and other life-threatening complications. Dr. Esper says having your child vaccinated can protect them from the flu but it also protects people around them who may be high risk.

There are a lot of people that we know who are really at-risk for having really bad flu people who have asthma, or people who have bad immune systems because theyre undergoing some medications thats reducing their immune system, or they have cancer or you have a baby, and newborn babies cannot get the flu vaccine, but they can really get bad flu, he notes.

The flu shot can take two to four weeks before its fully effective, he adds. So its best to be vaccinated sooner, rather than later.

But at the end of the day, Dr. Esper says, if you have a child whos terrified of needles and youre avoiding the flu shot because of it, the nasal vaccine is an option. Its more important to receive any flu vaccination than none at all.

When Is The Right Time To Get Vaccinated For The Seasonal Flu

Child flu nasal spray administration clip 2018

The vaccine is usually available in early fall. It can take up to a couple of weeks for the body to build immunity to the flu. So, the best time to get a shot is as soon as the vaccine becomes available. But if you didn’t get one before the season started, it’s a good idea to still get one during the season to lower your risk of getting sick.

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How Does The Flu Vaccine For Children Work

The nasal spray flu vaccine for children contains live but weakened forms of four different strains of the flu virus . It works by stimulating your childs immune system to produce antibodies against the flu virus, without actually causing flu. The antibodies stay in the childs body so that if theyre exposed to the flu virus naturally, their immune system can recognise it, attack it and prevent it from causing flu.

Your child will usually be protected from flu within two to three weeks after having the vaccine.

The flu virus is constantly changing its structure and different strains become more or less common each year. Every year, the World Health Organisation and the EU identify which strains are likely to be prevalent for that years flu season and new vaccines are produced to protect against these strains. This is why a flu vaccine is needed every year.

Your child will usually be protected from flu within two to three weeks after having the vaccine. The length of the protection varies, but usually lasts 6 to 12 months.

The nasal flu vaccine for children is less effective than the flu jab in adults, so is not suitable for adults aged 18 years and over.

Who Should Get A Seasonal Flu Vaccine

The seasonal flu vaccine is recommended for all persons older than 6 months of age.

It’s also recommended for adults considered to be at higher risk of complications. That includes:

  • People with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, heart disease, lung disease, and a weakened immune system, such as from HIV/AIDS or as a result of therapy.
  • Pregnant women
  • Residents of nursing homes and other facilities where people have chronic medical conditions
  • Health care workers
  • People planning to travel to the tropics at any time and people who were not vaccinated but are going to the Southern Hemisphere from April through September
  • People ages 50 years and older. There are now high-dose vaccines made specifically for older people and their immune systems.
  • Caregivers and household contacts of anyone in a high-risk group

The vaccine is also recommended for anyone else who wants to be protected against this year’s flu.

If a child is between 6 months and 8 years and is being vaccinated against flu for the first time , they should get two doses, separated by at least 4 weeks.

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Iv1 Inactivated Influenza Vaccine

IIVs contain standardized amounts of the HA protein from representative seed strains of the two human influenza A subtypes and either one or both of the two influenza B lineages . IIVs currently authorized for use in Canada are a mix of split virus and subunit vaccines, both consisting of disrupted virus particles. Split virus vaccines contain whole inactivated viruses split with detergent, ether, or both, while subunit vaccines are made of purified HA and NA. The amount of NA in the vaccines is not standardized. HA-based serum antibody produced to one influenza A subtype is anticipated to provide little or no protection against strains belonging to the other subtype. The potential for trivalent vaccine to stimulate antibody protection across B lineages requires further evaluation and may be dependent upon factors such as age and prior antigenic experience with the two B lineagesFootnote 79,Footnote 80,Footnote 81,Footnote 82,Footnote 83,Footnote 84.

Because of potential changes in the circulating influenza virus from year to year and waning immunity in vaccine recipients, annual influenza vaccination is recommended. Although NACI is aware of some recent studies that suggest that vaccine induced protection may be greater in individuals who have no recent vaccine history, optimal protection against influenza, season after season, is best achieved through annual influenza vaccinationFootnote 85,Footnote 86. NACI will continue to monitor this issue.

Efficacy and effectiveness

Can Getting The Seasonal Flu Vaccine Cause The Flu

A flu vaccine means a shot this year. How to ease kids

There are actually two kinds of vaccines: One is given as a shot and one is given as a nasal spray. The shot contains dead influenza viruses — up to four different strains. The nasal spray is made with live viruses that have been weakened. Neither vaccine causes flu illness . The strains of influenza virus within the vaccines are chosen each year based on what scientists predict will be the circulating viruses for the flu season. Both types of vaccine cause the body’s immune system to create antibodies that will ward off influenza virus if it invades your body.

The nasal spray can be given to healthy, non-pregnant individuals ages 2 to 49. It should not be given to anyone with a chronic condition or weak immune system. That would include an illness that affects the immune system and people being treated with drugs or therapies that suppress the immune system. If you have any question about whether you or your child can use the nasal spray vaccine, talk with your doctor.

The flu shot can be given to anyone ages 6 months and older. Also available are intradermal shots. These injections, approved for those ages 18 to 64, use smaller needles and only go into the top layer of the skin instead of deeper into the muscle.

For those age 65 and older, a high-dose version of the flu vaccine called Fluzone is recommended when available. It may be more effective at protecting the elderly because their immune systems are more fragile.

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Does It Work Better Than The Flu Shot

Studies show that both the flu shot and nasal spray work. For adults, doctors found that the nasal spray works just as well as the flu shot. In 2009, they found that the nasal spray worked better in children. But later studies didnât show that it was any more effective than the shot. Whether you get the shot or spray is up to you.

Important Safety Information Openclose

  • You should not get FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT if you have a severe allergy to eggs or to any inactive ingredient in the vaccine have ever had a life-threatening reaction to influenza vaccinations or are 2 through 17 years old and take aspirin or medicines containing aspirin children or adolescents should not be given aspirin for 4 weeks after getting FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT unless your healthcare provider tells you otherwise
  • Children under 2 years old have an increased risk of wheezing after getting FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT
  • Tell your healthcare provider if you or your child are currently wheezing have a history of wheezing if under 5 years old have had Guillain-Barré syndrome have a weakened immune system or live with someone who has a severely weakened immune system have problems with your heart, kidneys, or lungs have diabetes are pregnant or nursing or are taking a medication used to treat influenza like Tamiflu®*, Relenza®*, amantadine, or rimantadine
  • The most common side effects are runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, and fever over 100°F

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Flu Vaccine For Children Key Facts

If youre considering the nasal spray flu vaccine for your child, here are some key facts to consider:

  • Allowing your child to have the flu vaccine is the best way to protect them and your family from flu.
  • The nasal flu vaccine cant cause flu in children with a healthy immune system.
  • The most common side-effects are a blocked or runny nose, headache, reduced appetite or feeling a bit poorly. These get better in a couple of days.
  • Children aged two to nine years who havent had a flu vaccine before and who have an underlying medical condition may be given a second dose of the vaccine at least four weeks after their first vaccination.
  • The vaccine should be repeated each year before the start of the flu season. The best time to have it is from October to late November.
  • As the main flu viruses can change each year, a new nasal spray vaccine has to be given each year – the current brand of nasal spray flu vaccine available in the UK is called Fluenz Tetra.
  • The nasal spray vaccine contains pork gelatine. If this is not suitable, speak to your child’s nurse or doctor about your options.

Where Can My Child Get The Flu Vaccine

FluMist nasal spray might return next flu season

Where your child is offered the vaccine will depend on their age

  • If your children is between 2 years old and the start of primary school, they will be offered the nasal flu vaccine through your registered GP surgery, even if they attend nursery.
  • If your child is in primary and secondary school, they will receive the nasal flu vaccine at school as long as you have signed and returned the parental consent form.
  • If your child is homeschooled, they will be invited for vaccination by your local healthcare team. If you do not receive an invitation, ask at your GP surgery where they should go for the vaccine.
  • If your child is over 6 months and has a health condition that means theyre eligible for a flu vaccine but they are not in the groups being offered it at school, you can ask for them to have the vaccine at your registered GP surgery. Your child should have the vaccine every year.

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