Demographics Baseline Characteristics And Clinical Characterization
Overall, 75,164 confirmed patients with COVID19 infection, 113,818 with influenza type A and 9266 with influenza type B were included in the metaanalysis, of which 51% of COVID19, 54% of influenza type A and 52% of influenza type B included patients who were male. Funnel plots for included studies did not detect significant publication bias . Table shows that most patients of COVID19 , influenza type A and influenza type B had fever. Cough was the second most common symptom presenting in the patients of COVID19 , influenza type A and influenza type B . Runny nose was the third most common symptom presenting in the patients of influenza type A and influenza type B of patients. While runny nose was less common symptom in COVID19 and it is presented in 14% of patients. Also, fatigue was the fourth most common symptom in influenza type A , while it was less common in COVID19 and influenza type B patients. Dyspnea was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . Likewise, sore throat was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . Also, rhinorrhea was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . There was no information about coryza in COVID19 patients, while it is presented in influenza type A by 47% and influenza type B by 32% of the patients .
What Causes The Flu In A Child
The flu is caused by flu viruses. Flu viruses are divided into 3 types:
Influenza types A and B. These 2 types of viruses cause widespread illness almost every winter. They often lead to more people needing to go to the hospital, and more people dying from the flu. Public health officials focus on stopping the spread of types A and B. One of the reasons the flu remains a problem is because the viruses change often. This means that people are exposed to new types of the viruses each year.
Influenza type C. This type of virus causes a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all. It does not cause epidemics. It does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do.
A flu virus is often passed from child to child through sneezing or coughing. The virus can also live for a short time on surfaces. This includes doorknobs, toys, pens or pencils, keyboards, phones and tablets, and countertops. It can also be passed through shared eating utensils and drinking. Your child can get a flu virus by touching something that was touched by an infected with person, and then touching his or her mouth, nose, or eyes.
Difference Between Flu A And B
July 30, 2018 Posted by Ranidu
The key difference between Flu A and B is that the causative of Flu A is the Influenza A viral strain while that of Flu B is the influenza B viral strain.
Influenza viruses are a group of orthomyxoviruses that cause respiratory tract diseases. There are four main strains of these viruses as A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B are the commonest viral strains and cause flu A and flu B respectively. Therefore, the difference between these two conditions is in the infectious agent is the main difference between the two forms of flu.
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How Can I Help Prevent The Flu In My Child
The best way to prevent flu is to have the yearly flu vaccine. The flu vaccine is given as a shot . A nasal spray is not recommended for the 2017-2018 flu season. The CDC says this is because the nasal spray did not seem to protect against the flu over the last several flu seasons.
Each year, a new flu vaccine is available before the start of the flu season. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions about how vaccines work and how well they prevent flu. The first time a child between the ages of 6 months and 8 years gets a flu vaccine, he or she will need a second flu vaccine one month later.
The vaccine is advised for all children 6 months and older. But for some children, its more critical for them to get a flu shot. The flu shot should be given to any child who has any of these:
A long-term heart or lung condition
An endocrine disorder such as diabetes
A kidney or liver disorder
Weak immune system from HIV/AIDS or long-term steroids
A blood disorder such as sickle cell disease
A flu shot should also be given to:
A child who has a family member with a chronic health condition
A child or teen taking aspirin as long-term therapy
A child with parents or caregivers at high risk of complications from the flu
Some side effects of the vaccine can be like mild flu symptoms, but the vaccine does not cause the flu. Possible side effects of the flu vaccine include:
And you can help prevent your child spreading the flu to others if you:
What Are The Different Types Of Flu
There are three types of flu viruses: A, B, and C. Type A and B cause the annual influenza epidemics that have up to 20% of the population sniffling, aching, coughing, and running high fevers. Type C also causes flu however, type C flu symptoms are much less severe.
The flu is linked to between 3,000 and 49,000 deaths and 200,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States. The seasonal flu vaccine was created to try to avert these epidemics.
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How Is Influenza A Treated
If you have influenza, you are likely to get better within a week or so by:
- resting in bed
- taking mild pain relief to reduce your pain
- drinking plenty of liquids
- eating light foods when you are hungry
In some people, the flu can be severe and lead to serious complications such as pneumonia. This is mostly likely to affect the very young, the elderly, pregnant women, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and people with chronic health problems.
If this sounds like you, your doctor might give you antiviral treatment to reduce your symptoms and prevent complications. These treatments are most effective when started within 2 days of flu symptoms appearing, so its important to ask your doctor whether this type of treatment is right for you.
Antibiotics only work for bacterial infections, so they won’t work for the flu, which is caused by viruses.
What Are The Symptoms Of The Flu In A Child
The flu is a respiratory disease, but it can affect the whole body. A child can become suddenly ill with any or all of these symptoms:
Fever, which may be as high as 103°F to 105°F
Body aches, which may be severe
|Extreme tiredness that can last weeks|
|Sore throat||Sore throat in some cases|
A cold is usually mild and often goes away after a few days. The flu can cause severe symptoms and lead to problems such as pneumonia and even death. The symptoms of the flu can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
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Which Flu Is Worse A Or B
Type A influenza is generally considered worse than type B influenza. This is because the symptoms are often more severe in type A influenza than in type B influenza. Type A influenza is more common than type B influenza. Researchers suggest that most adults have considerable immunity against type B influenza. Thus, type B influenza is less common in adults than type A influenza and when it occurs, it is less severe as well. Children, however, may develop severe disease following type B influenza. It is noteworthy that just like type A influenza, type B influenza can cause serious and life-threatening disease in some people. Moreover, both infections can pass from person to person.
When To See A Doctor For Influenza A Or B
A majority of people will ride out the flu from home with only mild-to-moderate symptoms. But sometimes its better to visit your healthcare provider. Anyone with one or more of the risk factors for complications listed above should consider seeing a professional to make sure it doesnt evolve into a more severe disease or respiratory infection.
A healthcare provider might also be necessary for individuals with severe or prolonged symptoms or other complications like difficulty breathing, chest pain, sudden dizziness, vomiting, neck stiffness, or loss of consciousness.
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What Else Can Help
To make spreading the flu less likely, everyone in your family should::
- Wash hands well and often with soap, especially after using the bathroom, after coughing or sneezing, and before eating or preparing food
- Never pick up used tissues.
- Never share cups and eating utensils.
- Stay home from work or school if they have the flu.
- Cover their mouth and nose with a tissue when they cough or sneeze, then put it in the trash.
- Cough or sneeze into their upper arm, not their hands, if a tissue isn’t handy.
What Is Influenza A
Influenza A is a type of virus that causes influenza , a highly contagious respiratory illness. If you get it, you will need to rest at home and avoid infecting others. Vaccination can protect you against influenza A.
Both the influenza A and influenza B viruses circulate in the community and change continually, with new strains coming out each winter. This is why yearly vaccination is recommended.
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Epidemiology Of Human Infections
In terms of transmission, human infections with avian and other zoonotic influenza viruses, though rare, have been reported sporadically. Human infections are primarily acquired through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, but do not result in efficient transmission of these viruses between people.
In 1997, human infections with the HPAI A virus were reported during an outbreak in poultry in Hong Kong SAR, China. Since 2003, this avian virus has spread from Asia to Europe and Africa, and has become endemic in poultry populations in some countries. Outbreaks have resulted in millions of poultry infections, several hundred human cases, and many human deaths. The outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. Other avian influenza A subtype viruses have also resulted in both outbreaks in poultry and human infections.
In 2013, human infections with A virus were reported for the first time in China. Since then, the virus has spread in the poultry population across the country and resulted in over 1500 reported human cases and many human deaths
Other avian influenza viruses have resulted in sporadic human infections including the A and A viruses. Some countries have also reported sporadic human infections with swine influenza viruses, particularly the A and A subtypes.
In term of risk factors for human infections:
Can Flu B Be Prevented
The best way to prevent the flu is by getting your annual flu vaccine. The flu vaccine protects against the most common flu strains. For the 2021-2022 flu season, the vaccine protects against two flu A, and two flu B strains.
In addition to getting vaccinated, you can protect yourself from the flu by practicing good hygiene, including frequent hand washing. Since the pandemic started, flu cases have been lower, suggesting that COVID precautions such as social distancing and wearing masks might also help prevent flu.
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Subtypes Of The Influenza A Virus
Influenza A is further divided into different subtypes. These subtypes are based off of the combination of two proteins on the viral surface: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase . There are 18 different H subtypes and 11 different N subtypes.
For example, the most common influenza A subtypes that go around seasonally in humans are H1N1 and H3N2. In 2017, H3N2 spread to dogs in Florida. In 2015, this same strain also infected dogs in an earlier outbreak in Chicago.
Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into strains.
Unlike influenza A, influenza B isnt further divided into subtypes. But it can be broken down further into specific viral lineages and strains.
The naming of influenza virus strains is complex. It includes information such as:
- influenza type
- species of origin
- geographical origin
approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in late 2018.
The zanamivir, oseltamivir, and peramivir medications noted above work by reducing the ability of the virus to release itself from infected cells. The newer drug, baloxavir marboxil works by reducing the ability of the virus to replicate.
These antiviral medications are most effective when started within the first 48 hours of your illness. Theyre ineffective in treating illness caused by influenza C.
Over-the-counter medications can be taken to relieve nasal congestion, fever, and aches and pains.
Getting lots of rest, eating a healthy diet, and drinking plenty of fluids helps your body fight the virus as well.
How Effective Is The Flu Shot
The effectiveness of the flu shot is different each year. Between 2009 to 2020, the flu shot was, on average, around 40% effective in preventing the flu. The reason the flu shot does not have a high disease-prevention rate is because the influenza virus mutates, or changes over time. This is why people do not have lifelong immunity to the flu after getting sick with it. The bodys immune system may not be able to use antibodies made for a previous flu infection for a different flu virus strain.
Since the flu virus changes each year, so does the vaccine. This is why you need a flu shot each year. Sometimes, the flu virus strains that are chosen dont completely match the virus strains that end up causing most infections during the flu season. This is why the vaccine isnt 100% effective. Even if you get sick with the flu, the flu vaccine can reduce how sick you get. Regardless, it is important to get vaccinated against the flu, since any decreased chance of infection is worth keeping you healthy.
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Which Type Of Bird Flu Is In The News
Health care professionals had been very vocal about the strain of avian influenza known as H5N1.
The reason H5N1 has caused so much alarm is its ability to pass from wild birds to poultry and then on to people. While wild birds are commonly immune to the devastating and possibly deadly effects of H5N1, the virus has killed more than half of the people infected with it. The risk of avian flu is generally low in most people because the virus does not typically infect humans. Infections have occurred as a result of contact with infected birds. Spread of this infection from human to human has been reported to be extremely rare.
Characteristics Of Included Studies
The process of study selection is represented in Figure . A total of 194,092 reports were screened for the analysis of patients with COVID19 and influenza 363,827 of them were excluded after the duplicate removing, title and abstract screening, and the full text of 611 reports were reviewed in full text. We excluded studies that did not report sufficient data. Out of 540 included studies, 157 studies met the inclusion criteria for COVID19 and 383 for influenza. The characteristics of the selected articles are summarized in Table . Of the 157 COVID19 studies that were included in the analysis, 155 studies were in English and 2 of them were in Chinese languages., All COVID19 studies were retrospective, published in 2020, and 150 studies were from China, 2 from the United States, 1 from Italy, 1 from Japan, 1 from the United Kingdom, 1 from Iran and 1 from Taiwan. All influenza studies were from 2000 to 2020, and out of 383 influenza studies, 251 studies were influenza A and 47 studies were influenza B.
Flow diagram of literature search and study selection
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How Are Viral Infections Transmitted
Viruses replicate within the hosts cells to create copies that can be passed on, or transmitted, to others. Like bacteria, virus transmission can occur through multiple pathways. Some viruses can be transmitted by respiratory droplets when a person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
Viruses can be transmitted when you touch a surface that is contaminated and then touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. They can also be transmitted by contaminated water or food. Some viruses are spread through sexual contact or through contact with blood via needle or transfusion.