Extra Doses Of Vaccine Antigens
Administering extra antigens contained in a combination vaccine should be avoided in most situations . Using combination vaccines containing certain antigens not indicated at the time of administration to a patient might be justified when 1) the extra antigen is not contraindicated, 2) products that contain only the needed antigens are not readily available, and 3) potential benefits to the patient outweigh the potential risk for adverse events associated with the extra antigens. An extra dose of many live-virus vaccines and Hib or hepatitis B vaccine has not been found to be harmful . However, the risk for an adverse event might increase when extra doses are administered at an earlier time than the recommended interval for certain vaccines .
A vaccination provider might not have vaccines available that contain only the antigens needed as indicated by a childs vaccination history. Alternatively, although the indicated vaccines might be available, the provider might prefer to use a combination vaccine to reduce the required number of injections. In such cases, the benefits and risks of administering the combination vaccine with an unneeded antigen should be carefully considered and discussed with the patient or parent.
How Well Does Shingrix Work
Two doses of Shingrix provide strong protection against shingles and postherpetic neuralgia , the most common complication of shingles.
- In adults 50 to 69 years old with healthy immune systems, Shingrix was 97% effective in preventing shingles in adults 70 years and older, Shingrix was 91% effective.
- In adults 50 years and older, Shingrix was 91% effective in preventing PHN in adults 70 years and older, Shingrix was 89% effective.
- In adults with weakened immune systems, Shingrix was between 68% and 91% effective in preventing shingles, depending on their underlying immunocompromising condition.
In people 70 years and older who had healthy immune systems, Shingrix immunity remained high throughout 7 years following vaccination.
Conjugate Vaccine Carrier Proteins
Protein conjugates used in Hib conjugate vaccines produced in the United States include tetanus toxoid which is also used as a component of DTaP and Tdap vaccines . Simultaneous or sequential vaccination with Hib and these tetanus-toxoid containing vaccines is recommended when both are indicated . MCV4 and PCV13 both contain diphtheria-toxoid conjugates. There has been concern about simultaneous administration of vaccines containing like conjugates. One brand of MCV4, MenACWY-D , demonstrates reduced immunogenicity of the antibody response to Streptococcal pneumonia strains when administered simultaneously with PCV13 compared with separate administration. It is recommended to space these vaccines by 28 days in a person with anatomic asplenia . Simultaneous or sequential vaccination of MCV4-CRM , PCV13, and Tdap , all of which contain diphtheria toxoid, is not associated with reduced immunogenicity or increase in local adverse events.
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Shingrix Dosage And Schedule
Shingrix should be administered to immunocompetent adults aged 50 years and older and adults aged 19 years who are or will be immunodeficient or immunosuppressed because of disease or therapy as a two-dose series , 2 to 6 months apart . However, for persons who are or will be immunodeficient or immunosuppressed and who would benefit from completing the series in a shorter period, the second dose can be administered 12 months after the first. See more detailed clinical guidance.
If more than 6 months have elapsed since the first dose of Shingrix, you should administer the second dose as soon as possible. However, you do not need to restart the vaccine series.
If the second dose is given less than 4 weeks after the first dose, the second dose should be considered invalid. A valid second dose should be administered 2 months after the invalid dose .
Can I Get The Booster And Other Vaccines At The Same Time
Yes, COVID-19 vaccines may be administered without regard to timing of other vaccines. This includes simultaneous administration of COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines on the same day. If multiple vaccines are administered at a single visit, each shot can be given in a different injection site. If a patient is due for more than one vaccine, providers are encouraged to offer all the vaccines at the same visit.
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Is It Safe To Get The Covid
If youve had chickenpox, youre at risk of developing shingles when you get older. The same virus that causes chickenpox can reactivate many years later in your body, perhaps due to a waning immune system, and cause the painful, blistery rash known as shingles. According to the CDC, adults over 50, as well as people 19 and older with compromised immune systems, are encouraged to get the shingles vaccine to prevent shingles infection.
Its a good idea to discuss your individual situation with your doctor, but in most cases, you can get the shingles vaccine and the COVID-19 vaccine at the same time. Early on, as researchers were continuing to gather information about the COVID vaccine, it was recommended to space it out a few weeks from other immunizations. However, as experts learned more, the CDC announced it was safe to give the COVID-19 vaccine along with other vaccines, even on the same day.
Im Pregnant Are There Vaccines I Should Have Now Or Should I Wait Until My Baby Is Born
- Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine at least a month before becoming pregnant.
- Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy.
- Yearly seasonal flu vaccine by the end of October, if possible.
- COVID-19 vaccine at any point in pregnancy, as well as booster doses for those who are eligible.
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Interchangeability Of Combination Vaccines From Different Manufacturers
Licensure of a vaccine by FDA does not necessarily indicate that the vaccine is interchangeable with products from other manufacturers. Such data are ascertained and interpreted more readily for diseases with known correlates of protective immunity . For diseases without such surrogate laboratory markers, prelicensure field vaccine efficacy trials or postlicensure surveillance generally are required to determine protection . ACIP prefers that doses of vaccine in a series come from the same manufacturer however, if this is not possible or if the manufacturer of doses given previously is unknown, providers should administer the vaccine that they have available.
Spacing Of Multiple Doses Of The Same Antigen
Vaccination providers should adhere to recommended vaccination schedules . Administration at recommended ages and in accordance with recommended intervals between doses of multidose antigens provides optimal protection.
Administration of doses of a multidose vaccine using intervals that are shorter than recommended might be necessary in certain circumstances, such as impending international travel or when a person is behind schedule on vaccinations but needs rapid protection. In these situations, an accelerated schedule can be implemented using intervals between doses that are shorter than intervals recommended for routine vaccination . The accelerated or minimum intervals and ages for scheduling catch-up vaccinations. Vaccine doses should not be administered at intervals less than these minimum intervals or at an age that is younger than the minimum age.*
Certain vaccines produce increased rates of local or systemic reactions in certain recipients when administered more frequently than recommended . Careful record keeping, maintenance of patient histories, use of immunization information systems , and adherence to recommended schedules can decrease the incidence of such reactions without adversely affecting immunity.
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Early Vaccination Is Important To Prevent Diseases
Vaccines are the best defense against infections that may have serious complications such as pneumonia, meningitis, cancer, and even death. CDC recommends vaccinations before the age of two years to protect children against 14 infectious diseases: measles, mumps, rubella , varicella , hepatitis A, hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , Haemophilus influenzae Type b , polio, influenza , rotavirus, and pneumococcal disease.
Children are given shots at a young age because this is when they are at highest risk of getting sick or dying if they get these diseases. Newborn babies are immune to some diseases because they have antibodies they get from their mothers, usually before they are born. However, this immunity lasts a few months. Most babies do not get protective antibodies against diphtheria, whooping cough, polio, tetanus, hepatitis B, or Hib from their mothers. This is why its important to vaccinate a child before she or he is exposed to a disease.
Vaccines contain weakened or killed versions of the germs that cause a disease. These elements of vaccines, and other molecules and micro-organisms that stimulate the immune system, are called antigens. Babies are exposed to thousands of germs and other antigens in the environment from the time they are born. When a baby is born, his or her immune system is ready to respond to the many antigens in the environment and the selected antigens in vaccines.
If Im Behind On My Shots Where Can I Go To Get Them
Our Florida Blue Centers host vaccine clinics throughout the flu season. In addition to your annual flu shot, you can also get COVID-19, Shingrix , Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, pneumonia and Tdap shots. Find a vaccine clinic near you at floridablue.com/center. You can also call to speak to a care nurse.
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Key Points About The Change To The Programme
Since last August, Shingrix® has been available to be ordered online via the ImmForm website for those who are eligible for shingles vaccination but are clinically contraindicated to receive the live vaccine Zostavax® due to their immunocompromised status. Shingrix® should be used for those who are eligible from 1 September 2021.
Shingrix® requires a 2-dose schedule, with the second dose administered from 2 months following the first dose.
It is important that Shingrix® is given only to those who are clinically contraindicated for Zostavax® due to their immunocompromised status in order to have sufficient supply for those who need to receive it.
GPs should continue to offer Zostavax® to eligible patients who are not contraindicated.
Any individual who reaches their 80th birthday is no longer eligible for a shingles vaccination due to the reducing efficacy of the Zostavax® vaccine as age increases. This reflects the 2010 recommendation made by JCVI. However, where an individual has turned 80 years of age following their first dose of Shingrix®, a second dose should be provided to complete the 2-dose schedule for Shingrix®.
Further detailed information and guidance for healthcare professionals relating to this change is set out in below.
Details on ImmForm vaccine coverage data collection are set out below.
Who Shouldnt Get The Shingles Vaccine
You shouldnt receive the shingles vaccine if:
- Youve had a previous severe allergic reaction to Shingrix or any of its ingredients.
- Youre pregnant or breastfeeding.
- You have no immunity to chickenpox, which means you should get the chickenpox vaccine instead.
Having a mild illness like a cold isnt a reason to not get your shingles vaccine.
However, if you have a moderate to severe illness or a fever of 101.3 or higher, you should recover before getting your shingles vaccine.
state that the COVID-19 vaccine may be given without regard to the timing of other vaccines.
This means you dont have to wait to receive your COVID-19 and shingles vaccinations.
In fact, you can get your COVID-19 vaccine and shingles vaccine at the same time. If you choose to do this, make sure to receive your injections at two different sites.
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Getting The Vaccines Together Is Safe And You Can Get Both At The Pharmacy
Medically reviewed in July 2022
In the United States and other northern hemisphere countries, flu season refers to the fall and winter months, when there is a major increase in the transmission of influenza viruses. While flu seasons vary in a number of different waysduration, severity, and the timing of peak months, to name a fewthe fall and winter months typically see a major uptick in illnesses, hospitalizations, and fatalities caused by influenza.
People who are aged 50 or older should consider getting another vaccine when they receive their flu shotthe shingles vaccine.
Here, we look at some common questions about the vaccines.
What is shingles? Shingles is a painful, blistering rash that is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox:
- Anyone who has had chickenpox is already carrying this virus and is at risk for shingles.
- A persons risk of having shingles increases as they age.
- About 4 out of every 1,000 people in the U.S. population have shingles in a given year. That number is 1 in 100 for people over the age of 60.
- Between 10 and 18 percent of people who get shingles experience postherpetic neuralgia , nerve pain that persists after the rash resolves and can last months, or in some cases, years.
- Having shingles increases a persons risk of heart attack and stroke.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Shingrix
Studies show that Shingrix is safe. The vaccine helps your body create a strong defense against shingles. As a result, you are likely to have temporary side effects from getting the shots. The side effects might affect your ability to do normal daily activities for 2 to 3 days.
Most people got a sore arm with mild or moderate pain after getting Shingrix, and some also had redness and swelling where they got the shot. Some people felt tired, had muscle pain, a headache, shivering, fever, stomach pain, or nausea. Some people who got Shingrix experienced side effects that prevented them from doing regular activities. Symptoms went away on their own in about 2 to 3 days. Side effects were more common in younger people.
You might have a reaction to the first or second dose of Shingrix, or both doses. If you experience side effects, you may choose to take over-the-counter pain medicine such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.
Guillain-Barré syndrome , a serious nervous system disorder, has been reported very rarely after Shingrix. There is also a very small increased risk of GBS after having shingles.
If you experience side effects from Shingrix, you should report them to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your doctor might file this report, or you can do it yourself through the VAERS websiteexternal icon, or by calling 1-800-822-7967.
If you have any questions about side effects from Shingrix, talk with your doctor.
Who Should Not Have The Shingles Vaccine
You should not have the shingles vaccine if you’ve had a serious allergic reaction in the past to a previous dose of the shingles vaccine, or to any of the ingredients in the vaccine, or to a previous dose of varicella vaccine.
If you have a weakened immune system a GP or practice nurse will assess which vaccine is suitable for you. Discuss any health concerns with the GP or practice nurse before you have the vaccine.
Zostavax is not suitable for people who have a weakened immune system due to a condition, treatment or medicine.
Will There Be Any Side Effects From The Shingles Vaccination
There are 2 shingles vaccines: Zostavax and Shingrix .
With both vaccines it’s quite common to get redness and discomfort at the vaccination site, headaches and fatigue, but these side effects should not last more than a few days. See a GP if you have side effects that last longer than a few days, or if you develop a rash after having the shingles vaccination.
Read more about the shingles vaccine side effects.
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Do I Really Need A Flu Shot This Year If I Had One Last Year
Its important to get your flu shot every year. Viruses change, so the best way to fight the latest strain is with the latest vaccine. Flu vaccines are overwhelmingly safe and are available for most people 6 months and older. A flu shot is vital for high-risk groups, including seniors, children and pregnant women. High risk also includes people with pre-existing conditions like asthma, heart disease and diabetes.
Most Florida Blue members can get their flu shot at no-extra cost from an in-network doctor or pharmacy. Many communities plan events to ensure those eligible have access to a flu vaccine.
Cdcs Recommended Childhood Vaccine Schedule Ensures Children Get The Best Protection During The Many Different Stages In Growth And Development
From the moment babies are born, they are exposed to numerous bacteria and viruses on a daily basis. Eating food introduces new bacteria into the body numerous bacteria live in the mouth and nose and an infant places his or her hands or other objects in his or her mouth hundreds of times every hour, exposing the immune system to still more germs. When a child has a cold, he or she is exposed to up to 10 antigens, and exposure to strep throat is about 25 to 50 antigens. Each vaccine in the childhood vaccination schedule has between 1-69 antigens. A child who receives all the recommended vaccines in the 2018 childhood immunization schedule may be exposed to up to 320 antigens through vaccination by the age of 2.
In fact, a 1994 report from the Institute of Medicine, Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccinesexternal icon, states: In the face of these normal events, it seems unlikely that the number of separate antigens contained in childhood vaccines would represent an appreciable added burden on the immune system that would be immunosuppressive.
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Simultaneous Pneumococcal And Shingles Vaccines Safe
Giving patients both the herpes zoster and pneumococcal vaccines simultaneously does not seem to undermine the zoster vaccines protective effect, despite FDA concerns to the contrary, researchers from Kaiser Permanente wrote in the journal Vaccine.
The package insert of the zoster vaccine says the two should be given in separate doctor visits. Doing them both at the same time is much more convenient and cheaper for the patient. If it is also safe, there seems no point in doing them separately, the authors wrote.
The FDA had asked the manufacturer of the zoster vaccine to mention in the package insert that the concurrent use of both vaccines detrimentally affects the zoster vaccines ability to generate an immune response.
Hung Fu Tseng, PhD, MPH, said:
Our study found no evidence that receiving the zoster vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine on the same day would compromise the immune response necessary to protect against herpes zoster, also known as shingles.
This study, which started on January 1, 2007 and ended on June 30, 2010, involved two groups of patients aged 60+. 7,187 patients received both vaccines simultaneously while 7,179 received them non-concurrently .
They identified 56 cases of herpes zoster in the simultaneous group and 58 in the other no statistically significant difference in shingles incidence.
Dr. Tseng adds:
If a patient is eligible for both vaccines, the CDC still recommends they both be administered at the same time, despite FDA concerns.