Threat Of Untreatable Gonorrhoea Could Be Tackled With Meningitis Vaccine
In 2020 more than 80 million new cases of the infection were recorded worldwide, according to the World Health Organisation.
An existing meningitis vaccine could be used to help protect against gonorrhoea amid rising global cases and growing bacterial resistance to drugs, a new study suggests
Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection which, if untreated, can lead to serious health conditions, including infertility in women, transmission to newborn babies and increased risk of HIV.
According to the World Health Organisation , in 2020 more than 80 million new cases of the infection were recorded worldwide.
Researchers suggest declining effectiveness of treatments for the bacteria responsible Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the lack of a licensed vaccine to prevent the infection have raised concerns about the possibility that gonorrhoea may become more resistant to treatment, or even untreatable, in future.
In 2016, the WHO set a target to reduce gonorrhoea incidences by 90% by 2030, however no effective vaccine has so far been developed.
Three new studies suggest the 4CMenB meningitis vaccine may offer significant protection to young adults, and to men who have sex with men who might be at higher risk of infection.
A modelling study led by Professor Peter White, Imperial College London, was the first analysis of the health and economic effects of using a vaccine to protect against gonorrhoea that accounts for its impact on future rates of infection.
Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals. Review of meningococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious meningococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, conjugate meningococcal vaccines are in limited use. Information on vaccination schedules in other countries can be found on the World Health Organization website. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional general information.
Menb Vaccines Require Multiple Doses
Both MenB vaccine products require more than 1 dose for maximum protection. Adolescents must receive the same vaccine product for all doses.
- Bexsero:® Administer 2 doses. Administer the second dose at least 1 month after the first dose.
- Trumenba:® Administer 2 or 3 doses.
- Administer 2 doses to healthy adolescents who are not at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal disease. Administer the second dose 6 months after the first dose.
- Administer 3 doses to adolescents who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. This includes during outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease. Administer the second dose 1 to 2 months after the first dose. Administer the third dose 6 months after the first dose.
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Tetanus And Diphtheria Vaccine
Td is a two-in-one vaccine. It protects people against tetanus and diphtheria. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization strongly recommends that all Canadians receive a primary immunizing course of tetanus toxoid in childhood followed by routine booster doses every 10 years.
The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced one lifetime dose of the pertussis vaccine for adults to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario. All adults 19 to 64 years of age, who have never received the Tdap vaccine in adolescence, are now eligible to receive one lifetime dose of the vaccine. This lifetime dose replaces one of the Td booster doses given every 10 years.
Parents, grandparents or other adult household contacts of newborns, infants and young children as well as health care workers are considered a priority to receive the Tdap vaccine.
What is tetanus?
Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with the tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach, and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.
What is diphtheria?
Can You Get Multiple Vaccines At Once
The technical term for getting multiple vaccines together is vaccine coadministration. And the answer to whether this is a good idea depends largely on your age and health status, the vaccines youre considering, how urgent the need is to start building up protection against said threat or threats, and personal preferences, experts say.
As a general rule, there are very few vaccines that cant be coadministered, says L.J. Tan, MS, PhD, the chief policy and partnership officer at the Immunization Action Coalition in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Vaccines commonly administered together include DTaP and Tdap, which protect against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , and MMR, which prevents measles, mumps, and rubella.
When vaccines are coadministered, they should go in different locations or anatomical sites, according to Dr. Tan. It can be in the same arm if they are spaced an inch apart, he says. This allows your doctor or pharmacist to identify which vaccine caused a reaction, should one occur.
Here, experts break down which vaccines can be given at the same time and which ones cant. Plus, find out why you still need to wear a mask indoors if youre vaccinated.
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Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine
Before a vaccine became available for it, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Hib is much less common today due to vaccinations.
Doctors usually administer the Hib vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. They will administer it again between the ages of 12 and 15 months.
The dosing regimen depends on the brand of vaccine an infant receives.
Doctors will give this vaccine either alone or as part of a combination vaccine.
Cdc Says It Is Safe To Get Other Immunizations At Same Time Of Covid Vaccine
HARRISONBURG, Va. – The Centers for Disease Control previously recommended COVID-19 vaccines should be administered alone with about 14 days before or after any other vaccine.
That guidance has recently changed with the presence of more data on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines.
Although data are not available for COVID-19 vaccines administered simultaneously with other vaccines, extensive experience with non-COVID-19 vaccines has demonstrated that immunogenicity and adverse event profiles are generally similar when vaccines are administered simultaneously as when they are administered alone, the agency explains on their website.
According to HB 1090, Virginia students must have certain immunizations prior to starting seventh grade.
According to the new guidance from the CDC, children will be able to get immunizations such as the TDAP, Meningitis and Hepatitis A vaccines, at the same time.
Some thought that maybe if you got the TDAP and the COVID at the same time, the COVID antibodies may not be as effective as in terms of getting in your system versus the TDAP or there may be a cross-reaction, Dr. Percita Ellis with the American Academy of Pediatrics explained. They did many studies people getting it at the same time a week later, a day later, etc. They found there was no difference in antibody production for either of the vaccines or any of the vaccines.
Dr. Ellis says getting required immunizations is still very important to keep from risking another pandemic.
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Who Should Not Get A Meningococcal Vaccine
Your preteen or teen shouldn’t get the meningococcal vaccine if they:
- Has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a meningococcal vaccine before or to any vaccine component
- Is moderately or severely ill
- Has ever had Guillain-Barre syndrome
Pregnant women can get the meningococcal vaccine, but it’s only recommended for those with certain immune problems or those likely to be exposed to meningitis. With the newer MCV4 and MenB vaccines, there hasn’t been as much study in pregnant women compared to the MPSV4 vaccine.
Adolescent And Young Adult Studies On Concomitant Administration
summarizes the 12 studies assessing concomitant administration of meningococcal vaccines in adolescents and young adults .,- The following sections focus on potential changes to immune responses to vaccines when administered together with meningococcal vaccines. Most of the adolescent studies that compared immune responses to the meningococcal vaccine under individual and concomitant administration did not find any decreases in meningococcal immune responses under concomitant administration.-,,- Similarly, safety was generally comparable across groups in each of the adolescent studies when assessed.,- Exceptions to both of these general observations are specified where applicable.
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Other Vaccines Against Meningococcal Disease
Several bacteria can cause meningitis and septicaemia, some of which can be prevented through vaccination.
The Hib/MenC vaccine is offered as part of the NHS vaccination programme to all babies after their 1st birthday.
The MenB vaccine is offered as part of the NHS childhood vaccination programme to all babies at 8 and 16 weeks, with a booster after their 1st birthday.
Page last reviewed: 2 April 2020 Next review due: 2 April 2023
Route Site And Needle Size
Administer meningococcal conjugate and serogroup B meningococcal vaccines by the intramuscular route. The preferred site for infants and young children is the vastus lateralis muscle in the anterolateral thigh. The preferred injection site in older children and adults is the deltoid muscle. Use a needle length appropriate for the age and size of the person receiving the vaccine.
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Healthy Infants And Children
One dose of Men-C-C vaccine is recommended in unimmunized children less than 5 years of age. One dose of Men-C-C vaccine may be considered for children 5 to 11 years of age if they have not previously been immunized as infants or toddlers. Immunization with 4CMenB vaccine or MenB-fHBP may be considered on an individual basis, depending on individual preferences, regional serogroup B epidemiology and strain susceptibility.
Spacing Of Multiple Doses Of The Same Antigen
Vaccination providers should adhere to recommended vaccination schedules . Administration at recommended ages and in accordance with recommended intervals between doses of multidose antigens provides optimal protection.
Administration of doses of a multidose vaccine using intervals that are shorter than recommended might be necessary in certain circumstances, such as impending international travel or when a person is behind schedule on vaccinations but needs rapid protection. In these situations, an accelerated schedule can be implemented using intervals between doses that are shorter than intervals recommended for routine vaccination . The accelerated or minimum intervals and ages for scheduling catch-up vaccinations. Vaccine doses should not be administered at intervals less than these minimum intervals or at an age that is younger than the minimum age.*
Certain vaccines produce increased rates of local or systemic reactions in certain recipients when administered more frequently than recommended . Careful record keeping, maintenance of patient histories, use of immunization information systems , and adherence to recommended schedules can decrease the incidence of such reactions without adversely affecting immunity.
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Who Should Not Get The Inactivated Influenza Vaccine
Speak with your health care provider if you:
- Had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of influenza vaccine, or any part of the vaccine
- Had severe oculo-respiratory syndrome after a previous flu shot
- Developed Guillain-Barré Syndrome within 8 weeks of getting any influenza vaccine without another cause being identified
- Are receiving a checkpoint inhibitor to treat cancer. This may affect when you should get the vaccine
Children less than 6 months of age should not get the vaccine because it is not known to be effective at this age.
There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns speak with your health care provider.
Shingles Vaccine And Pneumonia Vaccine
Dr. Horovitz isnt a fan of combining a shingles shot with any other type of vaccine. Ten percent of people will be really sick from a shingles shot, and their arm will really hurt, so I dont like to layer shingles vaccines, he says.
Shingles, a painful rash caused by a reactivation of the chicken pox virus, is preventable. The CDC recommends that Everyone over 50 get two doses of the shingles vaccine.
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Concerns About Side Effects
If the side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent, or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.
Immunisation side effects may be reported to the SAEFVAC, the central reporting service in Victoria on 1300 882 924 .
You can discuss how to report problems in other states or territories with your immunisation provider.
The symptoms of COVID-19 and flu can be similar.
If you are unwell with flu-like symptoms, contact the COVID-19 hotline on 1800 675 398 or your GP to check if you require COVID-19 testing.
Extra Doses Of Vaccine Antigens
Administering extra antigens contained in a combination vaccine should be avoided in most situations . Using combination vaccines containing certain antigens not indicated at the time of administration to a patient might be justified when 1) the extra antigen is not contraindicated, 2) products that contain only the needed antigens are not readily available, and 3) potential benefits to the patient outweigh the potential risk for adverse events associated with the extra antigens. An extra dose of many live-virus vaccines and Hib or hepatitis B vaccine has not been found to be harmful . However, the risk for an adverse event might increase when extra doses are administered at an earlier time than the recommended interval for certain vaccines .
A vaccination provider might not have vaccines available that contain only the antigens needed as indicated by a childs vaccination history. Alternatively, although the indicated vaccines might be available, the provider might prefer to use a combination vaccine to reduce the required number of injections. In such cases, the benefits and risks of administering the combination vaccine with an unneeded antigen should be carefully considered and discussed with the patient or parent.
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Should You Get A Flu Shot
In general, every person with diabetes needs a flu shot each year. Talk with your doctor about having a flu shot. Flu shots do not give 100% protection, but they do make it less likely for you to catch the flu for about six months.
For extra safety, it’s a good idea for the people you live with or spend a lot of time with to get a flu shot, too. You are less likely to get the flu if the people around you don’t have it.
The best time to get your flu shot is beginning in September. The shot takes about two weeks to take effect.
If youre sick , ask if you should wait until you are healthy again before having your flu shot. And don’t get a flu shot if you are allergic to eggs.
You are advised to continue to take the general precautions of preventing seasonal flu and other communicable illnesses and diseases:
- Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash. If you dont have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your elbow, not your hand.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs spread that way.
- Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
- If you get sick, stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.
What Is The Influenza Prevention Policy
B.C. has an Influenza Prevention Policy to protect high risk people from influenza. Health care workers are required to be immunized against influenza or wear a mask when they are in patient care areas during the influenza season. Students, volunteers and visitors to health care facilities and other patient care locations are also expected to wear a mask if they did not get an influenza vaccine.
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Effectiveness Of The Menacwy Vaccine
The type of meningococcal vaccine that most young adults get is generally called the MenACWY vaccine, which protects against four strains of the Neisseria meningitidis bacteria.
Since the CDC recommended vaccination for adolescents in 2005, cases of meningococcal disease fell by 90%. Similar declines werent seen in groups that didnt have this vaccine recommendation.
Other studies also noted a large drop in meningococcal disease since the vaccine was introduced. One 2020 paper in JAMA Pediatrics analyzed the national rates of meningococcal disease between 2000 and 2005 and compared it to 2011 to 2017 .
The annual incidence rates of three strains of meningococcal disease were already dropping in the pre-vaccine period by about 14.6% among adolescents 16 to 22 years old. But that drop accelerated after vaccine introduction. Between 2011 and 2017, the incidence of meningitis due to these strains dropped by 35.6% per year.
This suggests that MenACWY vaccination is related to the drop in meningococcal disease among adolescents, though vaccination alone cant explain this decline. But other studies have replicated these results in other populations.
A study compared meningococcal disease cases and deaths in the Republic of Korea Armed Forces between 2008 and 2013 and 2013 to 2016 . Data showed the MenACWY vaccine is 88% effective in protecting against meningococcal disease.