Table Adjusted Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates For Influenza Seasons From 2004
CDC calculates vaccine effectiveness estimates through the U.S. VE Network
WI, MI, PA, TX, WA
WI, MI, PA, TX, WA
WI, MI, PA, TX, WA
WI, MI, PA, TX, WA
WI, MI, PA, TX, WA
|WI, MI, PA, TX, WA||7410|
|WI, MI, PA, TX, WA||8,436|
|WI, MI, PA, TX, WA||10,041|
|WI, MI, PA, TX, WA||8,845|
|CA, MI, PA, TN, TX, WA, WI||3.636||-17, 37|
* 2020-2021 flu vaccine effectiveness was not estimated due to low flu virus circulation during the 2020-2021 flu season.
** From 2004-05 through 2010-11, the Flu VE Network also enrolled inpatients.
***Interim VE estimates
Vaccine effectiveness estimates for the 2008-2009 flu season have not been published.
Number of patients used in VE calculation.
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Considerations For Getting A Covid
Its safe for your health care provider to administer a COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as other vaccines. If youre 12 years of age or older, you may get the flu shot at the same time as a COVID-19 vaccine. You may also get it any time before or after you receive the flu shot.
For children aged 5 to 11, the National Advisory Council on Immunization recommends a 14-day interval between a COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines. This is to help better monitor for possible side effects from COVID-19 vaccines. Provinces and territories will decide on an interval for this age group as part of their vaccination programs.
Talk to a health care provider or consult your provincial or territorial public health authority for the latest guidance.
Learn more about:
When Should I Get My Flu Vaccine
Flu vaccine effectiveness can have a lot to do with when you get it. Its recommended to get your flu vaccine about 2 weeks before flu season begins in your area preferably by the end of October. However, if you get the flu vaccine too early July or August, for instance you may not be protected for the entire flu season.
While September or October are the ideal times to get your flu vaccine, its still recommended to get it later than that if you were unable to do so earlier. If youre unsure when flu season begins in your area, talk to your local pharmacist or healthcare provider.
If youve recently received or will be receiving a COVID-19 vaccine including booster doses you dont have to wait a certain time to get the flu vaccine. You can even get them on the same day, if thats more convenient. These two vaccines arent known to interfere with each other.
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Will There Be Enough High
The CDC recommends that almost everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year, ideally by the end of October. Because immunity may decrease more quickly in older people, it is especially important that people 65 and older are not vaccinated too early September and October are generally good times, per the agency.
I think it makes sense for people 65 and older to get a high-dose flu shot, and I am hoping that if this becomes CDC policy that there will be enough supply for people to follow the recommendation, says Auwaerter.
Typically, when the CDC makes a new recommendation, theres not always an idea fit between supply and demand, he explains.
Certainly, for a motivated senior who wants to get the recommended high-dose flu vaccine, you can call around and see if have it on hand, says Auwaerter.
Should you put off getting the high-dose flu vaccine if your doctors office or pharmacy doesnt have it in stock? Both Auwaerter and the CDC agree that if people 65 and older dont have access to one of the high-dose or adjuvanted vaccines, they should get a standard-dose flu vaccine instead.
The Flu Vaccine Reduces Your Risk Of Getting Sick
The main benefit of the flu vaccine is that it can prevent you from becoming ill with the flu. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that for the 20192020 flu season, vaccination prevented 7.52 million illnesses in the United States.
While the flu typically causes mild to moderate symptoms in many people, getting sick can still be unpleasant and make it difficult for you to go about your daily life. It can also lead to increased doctors visits and missed days of school or work.
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Fda Committee Recommends 20222023 Influenza Vaccine Strains
The US Food and Drug Administration’s Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee has chosen the influenza vaccine strains for the 20222023 season in the northern hemisphere, which beginnings in the fall of 2022.
On March 3, the committee unanimously voted to endorse the World Health Organization’s recommendations as to which influenza strains to include for coverage by vaccines for the upcoming flu season. Two of the four recommended strains are different from last season.
The committee also heard updates on flu activity this season. So far, data from the US Flu Vaccine Effectiveness network, which consists of seven study sites, have not shown that the vaccine is protective against influenza A. “We can say that it is not highly effective,” said Brendan Flannery, PhD, who leads the US Flu VE network for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , in an interview with Medscape Medical News. He was not involved with the advisory committee meeting. Flu activity this season has been low, he explained, so there are fewer cases his team can use to estimate vaccine efficacy. “If there’s some benefit, it’s hard for us to show that now,” he said.
Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Coverage Survey Results 2019
The Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Coverage Survey is a yearly telephone survey that collects information about the flu shot in Canada. Each flu season, the survey estimates how many people get the flu shot as well as knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the flu shot. This year, the participants were also questioned about the sources of information regarding the flu shot.
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When Do They Start Working How Long Do They Last
Vaccines dont cause disease in the person. Rather, they prompt the bodys immune system to respond, much as it would have on its first reaction to the actual virus.
Flu vaccines stimulate antibodies to develop in the body usually within two weeks following vaccination.
While flu vaccines offer the highest level of protection three for four months after vaccination, research suggests antibodies continue to protect against infection 8.5 months after vaccination and 11.8 months after natural infection.
So while antibodies decrease over time, they generally last longer than a typical influenza season.
Current recommendations are to get vaccinated from April, before the flu season, which generally occurs from June to September.
Why Should People Get Vaccinated Against Flu
Influenza is a potentially serious disease that can lead to hospitalization and sometimes even death. Every flu season is different, and flu can affect people differently, but millions of people get flu every year, hundreds of thousands of people are hospitalized and thousands to tens of thousands of people die from flu-related causes every year. Flu can mean a few days of feeling bad and missing work or it can result in more serious illness. Complications of flu can include bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections and worsening of chronic medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, asthma, or diabetes. An annual seasonal flu vaccine is the best way to help protect against flu. Vaccination has been shown to have many benefits including reducing the risk of flu illnesses, hospitalizations and even the risk of flu-related death in children. While some people who get a flu vaccine may still get sick, flu vaccination has been shown in several studies to reduce severity of illness.
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Other Methods Of Manufacture
Methods of vaccine generation that bypass the need for eggs include the construction of influenza virus-like particles . VLP resemble viruses, but there is no need for inactivation, as they do not include viral coding elements, but merely present antigens in a similar manner to a virion. Some methods of producing VLP include cultures of Spodoptera frugiperdaSf9 insect cells and plant-based vaccine production . There is evidence that some VLPs elicit antibodies that recognize a broader panel of antigenically distinct viral isolates compared to other vaccines in the hemagglutination-inhibition assay .
A gene-based DNA vaccine, used to prime the immune system after boosting with an inactivated H5N1 vaccine, underwent clinical trials in 2011.
On November 20, 2012, Novartis received FDA approval for the first cell-culture vaccine. In 2013, the recombinant influenza vaccine, Flublok, was approved for use in the United States.
On September 17, 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for Supemtek, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine . The applicant for this medicinal product is Sanofi Pasteur. Supemtek was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2020.
Why Are There So Many Different Outcomes For Vaccine Effectiveness Studies
Vaccine effectiveness studies that measure different outcomes are conducted to better understand the different kinds of benefits provided by vaccination. Ideally, public health researchers want to evaluate the benefits of vaccination against illness of varying severity. To do this, they assess how well flu vaccines work to prevent illness resulting in a doctor visit, or illness resulting in hospitalization, ICU admission, and even death associated with flu. Because estimates of vaccine effectiveness may vary based on the outcome measured , results should be compared between studies that used the same outcome for estimating vaccine effectiveness.
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Flu Strains Explained And How The Vaccine Works
As we approach flu season, UAB Medicine already is getting questions about the different strains of the flu virus and the vaccine itself. With expert input from Rachael Lee, MD, assistant professor in the UAB Division of Infectious Diseases, we explain the differences in flu strains, including how many strains exist and what the flu shot will cover this year. We also answer some common questions, such as whether the flu shot for one strain reduces the risk of contracting another strain and whether flu vaccines are reissued after the virus mutates during the course of the season.
Understanding Flu Types
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , there are four types of flu viruses: influenza A, B, C, and D. The seasonal flu viruses that humans face every winter season in the United States are caused by human influenza A. Influenza A viruses are categorized as either the hemagglutinin subtype or the neuraminidase subtype based on the proteins involved, and there are 18 distinct subtypes of hemagglutinin and 11 distinct subtypes of neuraminidase. Influenza A is the primary cause of flu epidemics, and they constantly change and are difficult to predict.
This Years Flu Shot
Dr. Lee says this years flu vaccine covers four strains of the flu that are recommended by the World Health Organization. The strains recommended for vaccination for the 2020-2021 flu season in the northern hemisphere are:
Flu Shot Effectiveness
Benefits of the Vaccine
How Effective Are Flu Vaccines In Children
Vaccination has been found in most seasons to provide a similar level of protection against flu illness in children to that seen among adults.
In several studies, flu vaccine effectiveness was higher among children who received two doses of flu vaccine the first season that they were vaccinated compared to partially vaccinated children who only received a single dose of flu vaccine. However, in some seasons, partially vaccinated children still receive some protection.
In addition to preventing illness, flu vaccine can prevent severe, life-threatening complications in children, for example:
- A 2014 study showed that flu vaccine reduced childrens risk of flu-related pediatric intensive care unit admission by 74% during flu seasons from 2010-2012.
- In 2017, a study in the journal Pediatrics external icon was the first of its kind to show that flu vaccination also significantly reduced a childs risk of dying from flu. The study, which looked at data from four flu seasons between 2010 and 2014, found that flu vaccination reduced the risk of flu-associated death by half among children with underlying, higher risk medical conditions and by nearly two-thirds among healthy children.
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Side Effects And Risks
It is much safer to get the flu vaccine than to get the flu. Flu vaccines are safe and well-tolerated. Side effects are usually mild and last a few days. Common side effects include pain, redness and swelling at the injection site headache, fever, muscle aches, joint pain or feeling tired. Side effects in children include irritability, drowsiness or loss of appetite.
In rare cases, serious allergic reactions can occur. Seek medical attention if you have trouble breathing, rash or swelling of the face and throat. Allergic reactions can be treated and are usually temporary. The risk of Oculo-Respiratory Syndrome or Guillain-Barré Syndrome after flu vaccination is very low, about one case in a million flu shots.
The Best Flu Vaccine For People Over 65
As we get older, our immune systems have a harder time responding to illnesses and vaccines. To help provide better protection, there are a few recommended options for older adults this year:
Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent also known as the high-dose flu shot
If one of these three vaccines isnt available, you should still get vaccinated with another flu vaccine thats FDA-approved for your age range. All flu vaccines are effective against the flu. Its better to be vaccinated than to try to wait for a particular flu vaccine to become available.
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Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season
The composition of trivalent virus vaccines for use in the 2017â2018 Northern Hemisphere influenza season recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on August 25, 2017, was:
- an A/Michigan/45/2015 pdm09âlike virus
- an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 -like virus
- a B/Brisbane/60/2008âlike virus
In addition to these components, quadrivalent vaccines will also include a B/Phuket/3073/2013âlike virus .
In California, some emergency systems were strained by a spike in H3N2 flu cases. In addition, some areas experienced local shortages of oseltamivir. The severity of the flu season seemed somewhat comparable to the 2009â10 swine flu outbreak. A February 2018 CDC interim report estimated the vaccine effectiveness to be 25% against H3N2, 67% against H1N1, and 42% against influenza B.
Groups Who Should Especially Get The Vaccine
The flu shot can protect you against the flu. Because of this, it can reduce your chances of being infected with COVID-19 and the flu at the same time. This can lead to serious complications. You should especially receive the flu vaccine this season if youre:
- at high risk of severe COVID-19 related illness
- capable of spreading the flu to those at high risk of severe illness related to COVID-19
The flu vaccine is especially important for the following groups.
Other Flu Vaccine Options Besides The Flu Shot
The nasal-spray vaccine can be an ideal alternative for people afraid of getting the flu shot, including children over the age of 2, but how effective it is can vary year to year.
For example, a 2019 study published in the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics found that the nasal spray vaccine for the 2018-19 flu season was less effective than the flu shot in protecting children from getting two common strains of the flu: H1N1 and H3N2. But the nasal spray has since been reformulated for upcoming seasons.
The nasal vaccine is a live, weakened version of the virus, and is not recommended in anyone who has a weakened immune system, pregnancy, or chronic medical problems.
There is also a high-dose flu shot that contains more virus particles than the regular shot so that the immune system is stimulated more rigorously. This inoculation is for people aged 65 and older whose immune system may not be as strong. When this population receives a regular-dose flu shot, they may not produce as many protective antibodies and therefore are at a higher risk of getting sick with the flu.
A 2014 study published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that people 65 and older who received the high-dose shot suffered 24% overall fewer illnesses from influenza compared to older adults who received the standard dose.