Are All Types Of Vaccines Safe For People Living With Hiv
Vaccines are generally safe for people with HIV. However, some types of vaccines may not be recommended. For example, live attenuated vaccines like the chickenpox vaccinecontain a weakened but live form of the germ that causes the disease. LAVs can potentially cause an infection for people with HIV. However, depending on age, health, previous vaccinations, or other factors, some LAVs may be recommended. Talk to your health care provider about what is recommended for you.
Health Resources And Services Administrations Health Center Program
- COVID-19 Information for Health Centers and PartnersThis page provides the latest information on COVID-19 for health centers and Health Center Program partners. HRSA-funded health centers are a vital part of the nations response to HIV.
- Interpersonal Violence Toolkit and COVID-19 Resource PageFutures Without Violence, a HRSA-funded National Training and Technical Assistance Partner, developed this toolkit to assist health centers in designing a comprehensive response to IPV and human trafficking. During COVID-19, increases in IPV have been reported across the US there is a strong association between IPV and risks for HIV infection.
Structure Of The Virus
HIV-1 has a spherical structure with an electron-dense, cone-shaped core surrounded by a lipid envelope which comes from the host cell membrane after progeny viruses emerge from an infected and now killed target cell. The virus core is made up of the major capsid protein p24 , the nucleocapsid protein p7/p9, two copies of viral genomic RNA, and three viral enzymes . The viral core is surrounded by a matrix protein known as p17, lying underneath the virion envelope. The viral envelope is studded with two viral glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41, essential for HIV infection of cells . The HIV-1 RNA genome contains the gag, pol, and env genes, which are common to retroviruses. The products of the gag and pol genes are large precursor proteins cleaved by the viral protease, which then results in the mature proteins being produced. HIV also contains other accessory genes, including tat, rev, vif, nef, vpr, and vpu, which regulate the synthesis and assembly of infectious viral particles and the pathogenicity of HIV .
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National Institutes Of Health
- COVID-19 Prevention Trials Network The CoVPN seeks to enroll thousands of volunteers in large-scale clinical trials of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies for the prevention of COVID-19 disease. It was formed by merging four long-standing NIAID-funded clinical trial networks, including three that target HIV and AIDS. Interested individuals can sign up to potentially take part in a current or future clinical trial.
- Interim Guidance for COVID-19 and Persons with HIVThis interim guidance reviews special considerations for persons with HIV and their health care providers in the United States regarding COVID-19.
- NIH COVID-19 Treatment GuidelinesThese Treatment Guidelines were developed to inform clinicians how to care for patients with COVID-19. These Guidelines will be updated as new information becomes available.
- NIDA: Resources to Help Your Patients with Substance Use Disorders During the COVID-19 PandemicThis National Institute on Drug Abuse page provides resources for medical professionals on SUD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the comorbidity of HIV and SUD, it may be of use to those who work with people with HIV.
- NIDA: COVID-19NIDA also developed this page of COVID-19 resources for consumers, researchers, recovery professionals, medical providers, and others. It includes FAQs on COVID-19 and addiction/substance use disorder.
Flu Symptoms And Treatment
If you get sick with flu symptoms call your doctor right away. There are antiviral drugs that can treat flu illness and prevent serious flu complications. These drugs work best the sooner they are started. CDC recommends prompt treatment for people who have flu infection or suspected flu infection and who are at high risk of serious flu complications, such as people living with HIV.
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At Higher Risk Of The Flu
People with immunodeficiency diseases, including HIV infection, are at high risk of serious complications if they catch the flu . They may also be more likely than the general population to catch the flu and, if they do, their symptoms are more likely to last for longer , their illness is more likely to be severe , and they are more likely to be hospitalised .
But there is also good news. For some people infected with HIV, the flu doesnt affect their HIV infection.
Introduced in the mid-1990s, many people with HIV now receive combination therapies to slow down the progress of their HIV infection . Studies have found that patients with HIV receiving these therapies who catch the flu dont experience any unique signs or symptoms of HIV . The studies also found their secondary HIV complications didnt increase and there was no evidence of their HIV progressing with the flu . Even patients who already had serious HIV-related infections known as opportunistic infections when they caught the flu had no complications .
Why Have Scientists Waited So Long To Use Mrna
For decades, researchers have been studying mRNA shots for viruses like Zika, rabies, and even the flu. But the technology hasn’t been used on humans until 2020 for COVID-19.
The restraints were largely due to the lengthy testing requirements mandated prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. To curb the spread of the coronavirus, the FDA accelerated vaccine licensure and helped facilitate a timely development of COVID-19 shots.
Virologists like Pekosz say they hope that we can learn from the pandemic and continue to pursue fast-paced, effective vaccine protection.
COVID-19 showed us what we can do if we want to move a vaccine forward quickly, Pekosz says, adding that the data from COVID-19 vaccinations may help biotech companies move other candidate vaccines through the pipeline.
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Varicella Vaccination Of The Susceptible Contacts Of Hiv
Susceptible HIV-infected individuals may be infected by household members who develop wild-type varicella infection. Although the vaccination of household contacts of HIV-infected individuals has not been specifically studied, a related study showed that varicella vaccination of 35 household members of children with cancer or leukaemia was safe, with no secondary transmission to the high-risk patients.
- The varicella vaccination of all susceptible household contacts of HIV-infected individuals is recommended, as a priority. NACI Recommendation Grade A.
Recommended Vaccines For Hiv
Vaccine recommendations have recently been published for all US adults8 and for immunocompromised patients, including those with HIV.6,7,15 Guidelines categorize HIV-infected persons into those with high versus low-level immunosuppression defined as a current CD4 count of < 200 or 200 cells/mm3, respectively.6 Recommendations for the HIV patient are summarized in Table 1.
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Correlation Of Cd4 Count In People With Hiv And Covid
The normal range for CD4 counts in healthy adults is about 500 to 1,600 cells/mm3. People with HIV who have a CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 have similar cellular immune function to those without HIV. In people with HIV, a CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 meets the definition for AIDS. For patients on ART, the hallmark of treatment success is plasma HIV RNA below the level of detection by a polymerase chain reaction assay. Lymphopenia is a common laboratory finding in patients with COVID-19 in patients with HIV, clinicians should note that CD4 counts obtained during acute COVID-19 may not accurately reflect the patients HIV disease stage.
There have been some reports of people with advanced HIV who have presented with COVID-19 and another coinfection, including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.27,28 In patients with advanced HIV who have suspected or laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinicians should consider a broader differential diagnosis for clinical symptoms and consider consulting an HIV specialist .
Previous Naci Recommendations For Varicella Vaccine In Hiv
NACI previously recommended that susceptible persons 12 months of age with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV infection and with age-specific CD4 percentages of 25% may be vaccinated with two doses of varicella vaccine with a three-month interval between doses ., The recommendation was based on a single study published in 2001 by Levin et al. of 41 HIV-infected children in the U.S. who received two doses of Oka/Merck vaccine three months apart, after satisfying the above-stated inclusion criteria. Antibody seroconversion as measured by the fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test was found in 53% of children after one dose and 60% after two doses. Eight patients were evaluated for cell-mediated immunity response post-vaccination, with 20% responding after the first dose and 63% after the second dose.
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Should People With Hiv Get Vaccines
Yes. Vaccines play an important role in keeping people healthy. They protect you against serious and sometimes deadly diseases.
Vaccines are especially important for people with chronic health conditions like HIV, which can make it harder to fight off vaccine-preventable diseases like pneumococcal disease or the flu. HIV can also make it more likely that youll have serious complications from those diseases, which is why getting recommended vaccines is an important part of your overall HIV medical care.
Vaccines are very effective and they dont just protect individuals from disease. They also protect communities. When most people in a community get vaccinated and become immune to a disease, there is little chance of a disease outbreak. Eventually, the disease becomes rareand sometimes, its wiped out altogether.
Varicella Vaccination Of Hiv
There are no published data on the use of varicella vaccine in susceptible HIV-infected adolescents and adults. In temperate countries including Canada, 95% of individuals should have acquired varicella infection by 12 years of age. Therefore, Canadian-born adults with HIV are likely already immune to varicella. In contrast, studies have shown that only 40% to 70% of adults born in tropical countries have serologic evidence of previous varicella infection by their 20th birthday.,HIV-infected susceptible adults who have come to Canada from tropical regions may be at risk for severe complications if they develop wild-type varicella infection during the adult years. Therefore, serological testing is necessary to determine susceptibility in HIV-infected adolescents and adults who do not have a clear history of varicella illness or previous varicella vaccination.
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Challenges In Hiv Vaccine Development
Scientists have not developed a cure for HIV since the virus first surfaced 40 years ago. An mRNA vaccine would be a long-awaited breakthrough, but many variables in its development remain unknown.
Data suggests that immunizing people against HIV requires not only antibodies, but also targeting specific T cells, which help coordinate the bodys immune response, he adds.
is a good platform to try against HIV, Pekosz says. But because the immunity that you need to protect from HIV is a little bit different from what you need from flu and COVID-19, it’s more important to do the large scale trials to really see how effective it could be.
Why Is The Flu Vaccine Important
Most people who get the flu have a mild illness. But for some, it can be serious and even deadly. Serious complications from the flu are more likely in babies and young children, pregnant women, older adults, and people with certain long-term health conditions like diabetes or asthma.
Getting vaccinated every year is the best way to lower your chances of getting the flu. Flu vaccines cant cause the flu. Keep in mind that getting the flu vaccine also protects the people around you. So when you and your family get vaccinated, you help keep yourselves and your community healthy.
This is especially important if you spend time with people who are at risk for serious illness from the flu like young children or older adults. Learn more about how vaccines help protect your whole community.
The flu is caused by a virus. Common symptoms of the flu include:
- Fever and chills
- Feeling very tired
Some people with the flu may throw up or have diarrhea this is more common in children than adults. Its also important to know that not everyone with the flu will have a fever.
The flu is worse than the common cold. Its a common cause of problems like sinus or ear infections. It can also cause serious complications like:
- Worsening of long-term health problems, like asthma or heart failure
- Inflammation of the brain, heart, or muscles
- Multi-organ failure
The flu is contagious, meaning it can spread from person to person. The flu can spread when:
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People Are Also Reading
So far, the number of people who have tested positive for the AIDS virus simply because they tried to protect themselves from the flu is relatively small. Federal health officials put the number at about 90 nationwide. The local Red Cross says two people in the Buffalo area tested positive for this reason.
Those two local blood donors remain unaware of the unexpected signals their perfectly healthy, immunized blood is giving off. The Red Cross didn’t want to alarm them, and so never told them, said Dr. Robert Kratzel, science director.
Under its current policy, the Red Cross does not notify people whose blood turns out to be falsely positive. Instead, lab technicians submit the blood for a more sophisticated confirmation test. This second test weeds out the false positives.
But if the second test also comes up positive, then the presence of antibodies to the AIDS virus in the blood is deemed virtually certain. At that point is the donor notified, by telephone.
However, new federal guidelines soon will require a change in the local policy, and people who test falsely positive will be notified as well, Kratzel said. The Red Cross will try to reassure them that a false positive is nothing to be alarmed about.
Even though blood that tests positive on the first test and negative on the second test is theoretically “clean,” the Red Cross still discards it as an extra precaution, Kratzel said.
A Flu Shot Is The Best Protection Against Flu
If you have HIV, you are at high risk of developing serious flu-related complications, in addition to taking ART, the best way to prevent flu is by getting a flu shot.
- Several randomized studies in adults living with HIV have shown that flu vaccination can reduce the risk of flu illness. Studies in the United States have shown that flu vaccination prevents illness and reduces the need for doctors visits among people with HIV and other conditions resulting in immune suppression.
- People living with HIV should get a flu shot every year. Injectable flu vaccines are approved for use in people with HIV and other health conditions. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine vaccine should NEVER be used in people with HIV and AIDS. LAIV contains a weakened form of the live influenza virus and is not recommended for use in people with weakened immune systems .
Note: While people with HIV may still mount an immune response to flu vaccination, people with advanced HIV disease may not respond as well. Doctors may consider using influenza antiviral drugs for prevention in some cases. Visit the Summary for Clinicians: Chemoprophylaxis page for more information.)
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Risk Of Live Vaccines In Persons With Hiv
Immunizations are generally safe in individuals with HIV, except for live virus vaccines in persons with low CD4 counts. In those individuals with HIV who have advanced immunosuppression, live vaccines can cause a potentially life-threatening disseminated infection with the live pathogen in the vaccine.
Patients Materials And Methods
Patients and control subjectsPeripheral blood samples from 20 HIV-infected patients and 25 healthy HIV-seronegative control subjects were obtained from Wilford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center . Each individual was immunized with flu vaccine as part of the hospital immunization program or if recommended as part of the HIV health care program. Blood samples were collected at week 0 and 2 and 6 weeks after vaccination, unless indicated otherwise. The 19981999 flu vaccine administered was an inactivated trivalent subunit formulation that contained 30 g/mL of the hemagglutinin antigens of influenza A H1N1 , A H3N2 , and influenza B strains . HIV-infected patients had a wide range of CD4+ T cell counts at enrollment
Influenza antibody titrationSerum samples taken at week 0 and at 2 and 6 weeks after immunization were tested for antibody responses to each of the 3 individual vaccine components by use of a standard hemagglutination-inhibition assay, as described elsewhere . Participants were considered to respond to vaccination if a 4-fold increase in antibody titer was observed, compared with prevaccination titer
Cytokine productionCytokine levels in the culture supernatants were determined by ELISA, according to the manufacturers instructions: IL-2 and IFN- and IFN-
Virus loadPlasma HIV RNA levels were determined by a commercial nucleic acid sequencebased amplification assay , according to the manufacturers protocol
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What Is The Best Way To Prevent Flu
Getting a flu shot is the best way to protect yourself and your loved ones against the flu. If you are vaccinated, you are less likely to get the flu. And, if you do get sick, your illness will likely be milder, which helps keep you out of the hospital.
People with HIV should get a flu shot every year. It can provide safe and effective immunity throughout the flu season.
People with HIV should receive the flu shot rather than the nasal spray. The shot does not contain live flu virus whereas the nasal spray contains flu virus that is alive but weakened. People with weakened immune systems may have a higher risk of complications from the nasal spray.
You cannot get the flu from the flu shot. You should tell your provider if you are allergic to eggs or have had a bad reaction to other vaccines in the past before you receive the flu shot.
Visit hhs.gov/immunizations for more information about the flu vaccine and different ways to pay for vaccines.
Use the Flu Vaccine Finder to find a flu vaccine in your area.