Ii7 Vaccine Safety And Adverse Events
Post-marketing surveillance of influenza vaccines in Canada has shown that seasonal influenza vaccines have a safe and stable profile. In addition to routine surveillance, every year during the seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns, PHAC and the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Vaccine Vigilance Working Group of the Canadian Immunization Committee conduct weekly expedited surveillance of AEFIs for current influenza vaccines in order to identify vaccine safety signals in a timely manner. Refer to the Canadian Adverse Events Following Immunization Surveillance System web page for more information on post-marketing surveillance and AEFIs in Canada.
All influenza vaccines currently authorized for use in Canada are considered safe for use in people with latex allergies. The multi-dose vial formulations of inactivated influenza vaccine that are authorized for use in Canada contain minute quantities of thimerosal, which is used as a preservativeFootnote 15,Footnote 16 to keep the product sterile. Large cohort studies of administrative health databases have found no association between childhood vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental outcomes, including autistic-spectrum disordersFootnote 17. All single dose formulations of IIV and LAIV are thimerosal-free. Refer to Vaccine Safety in Part 2 of the CIG for additional information.
Common adverse events
Less common and serious or severe adverse events
Other reported adverse events and conditions
Are There Flu Vaccines That Pregnant Women Should Not Get
The seasonal and 2009 H1N1 flu vaccines can be given by shot or by nasal spray. Pregnant women should get the “flu shot”a vaccine made with killed flu virus. This one is given with a needle, usually in the arm. The other type of flu vaccinea nasal sprayis not approved for pregnant women. This vaccine is made with live, weakened flu virus. Nasal spray flu vaccine should be used only in healthy people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant. The nasal spray vaccine is safe for women after they have delivered, even if they are nursing.
Is The Influenza Vaccine Safe During Pregnancy Also Is It Safe For Pregnant People To Receive Vaccines With Thimerosal
Is the influenza vaccine safe during pregnancy? Also, is it safe for pregnant people to receive vaccines with thimerosal?
Pregnant people should receive the inactivated influenza vaccine . There is good evidence to show the flu shot is safe for pregnant people and their babies. In BC, influenza vaccine may be provided by prenatal care providers including family doctors and midwives, but can also be provided by specialty prenatal care service providers and by community-based pharmacists, or at the local health unit. Read more in our pregnancy section.
Thimerosal is in multi-dose vials only, but the amount of thimerosal in flu vaccines is very low. The ingredients in vaccines have been carefully studied for a long time and are safe in the small amounts used in vaccines. Pregnant people can receive an influenza vaccine with thimerosal unless the person has a systemic allergy to thimerosal. Read more in our safety section.
If you have further questions, we recommend you speak to your pregnancy care provider.
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What Is In The Flu Shot
Every year, scientists around the world do their best to get one step ahead of the flu by developing that years iteration of the flu shot. As a reminder, vaccines work by giving your body a chance to fight off an altered version of a virus or bacteria, so that if and when it encounters the live virus in the wild, it already knows how to react, and you never get sick. But whats in a flu shot is a little more complicated.
The recipe starts with the four most common influenza strains from around the world, injected into fertilized chicken eggs or mammalian cells, deactivated so it doesnt give you the actual flu, mixed with a grab-bag of preservatives, antibiotics, and sugars. This combination is then formulated for a shot or spray to make it in time for the 2021 flu season. For those science-is-fucking-awesome types out there, this is indeed awesome.
Its also complex as hell something that keeps virologists on their toes every year. Influenza strains constantly mutate, but scientists get one shot at the annual vaccine, making their best guess some 30 weeks in advance to get the flu shot out to the public.
Why Are Preservatives Sometimes Used In Vaccines
Preservatives are used to protect vaccines packaged in multi-dose vials. Each time a vaccine dose is drawn from a multi-dose vial, bacteria or fungi can enter the vial. Receiving a vaccine contaminated with bacteria or fungi can be dangerous. Preservatives are needed to prevent contamination of multi-dose vials each time individual doses are drawn.
Thimerosal use in vaccines and other medical products has a record of being very safe. Data from many studies show no evidence of harm caused by the low doses of thimerosal in vaccines.
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Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy
Within New Zealand, influenza vaccination coverage of pregnant women has been very modest. Research has identified that the most significant barriers to vaccination during pregnancy are
A lack of information about: – influenza disease and potential complications, and – the two for one benefit of maternal influenza vaccination No recommendation from the womans Lead Maternity Carer or other healthcare professionals involved in her care Structural barriers to accessing services through general practice
There is considerable research to show that patients value the recommendation of their health professional. Studies also show the importance of an explanation covering the risks associated with influenza disease, the effectiveness of vaccination for the woman and her baby, and the excellent safety record of influenza vaccination during pregnancy during the decision-making process.
Funded influenza vaccination for eligible pregnant women is provided through general practice, some antenatal clinics and some community pharmacies. It is recommended that women who become pregnant after winter and have not received the current influenza vaccination are offered influenza vaccination up to and including 31 December.
Influenza vaccination of pregnant women is recorded on the NIR to help monitor vaccination coverage and assess influenza protection. Refer to the section Recording influenza vaccinations on the National Immunisation Register.
Treatment And Postexposure Chemoprophylaxis In Pregnant Women
Pregnant women are at high risk of serious complications of influenza infection such as intensive care unit admission, preterm delivery, and maternal death. Patients with flu-like illness should be treated with antiviral medications presumptively regardless of vaccination status. Treatment with oseltamivir is preferred however, if oseltamivir is unavailable, zanamivir may be substituted. Health care providers should not rely on test results to initiate treatment and should treat patients presumptively based on clinical evaluation 38.
Because of the high potential for morbidity, the CDC and ACOG recommend that postexposure antiviral chemoprophylaxis be considered for pregnant women and women who are up to 2 weeks postpartum who have had close contact with someone likely to have been infected with influenza. If oseltamivir is unavailable, zanamivir can be substituted, two inhalations once daily for 10 days. All women who are pregnant or are in the first 2 weeks postpartum should be counseled to call for evaluation immediately if the early signs and symptoms of influenza infection develop 38. For more information about treatment and dosage see ACOG and the Society for MaternalFetal Medicines Seasonal Influenza Assessment and Treatment of Pregnant Women with Influenza-like Illness algorithm at www.acog.org/More-Info/FluVaccine.
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Opting Out Of The Flu Vaccine
Some pregnant women express concerns that the flu vaccine might increase their risk of miscarriage. To the contrary, according to the CDC, pregnant women who receive the flu vaccine during the first trimester are less likely to experience miscarriage than women who did not. It is the influenza that increases risks for miscarriage, as well as preterm birth and low birthweight. The 20092010 Washington state study found lower rates of miscarriage among women who had a seasonal flu shot. Other studies have shown lower risks for preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age babies, and infant mortality among women who received the influenza vaccine.
Some women may be concerned about the flu vaccine due to egg allergy. The CDC recommends that people with an egg allergy who have had a “hives only” reaction can get the flu shot without post-vaccination follow-up. Those with a severe egg allergy, such as one that has resulted in hives and additional symptoms, should be vaccinated in a medical setting by a health care provider who is able to recognize and manage allergic response. The only individuals advised to avoid getting a flu shot are those with a history of serious reactions to the flu vaccine.
What Happens If I Still Get Sick While Pregnant
While the flu shot is the most effective way to prevent infection it isn’t a guarantee you won’t get sick. If you do show symptoms of the flu, limit your contact with others and contact your healthcare provider immediately. Your doctor should prescribe antiviral medication if you are suspected of having the flu.
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V Choice Of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: Additional Information
With the recent availability of a number of new influenza vaccines, some of which are designed to enhance immunogenicity in specific age groups, the choice of product is now more complex. Section II.5 summarizes NACI’s recommendations on the choice of currently authorized influenza vaccines. This section provides more details for these recommendations.
Can Pregnant People With Egg Allergies Get Vaccinated
Most people who have an allergy to eggs can get vaccinated, with some additional safety measures. A person with severe allergy to any vaccine component, including egg protein, should not get the shot, even if they are pregnant. Pregnant people should tell the person giving the shots if they have any severe allergies or if they have ever had a severe allergic reaction following a flu shot.
People with egg allergies can receive any licensed, recommended age-appropriate influenza vaccine that is otherwise appropriate. People who have a history of severe egg allergy should be vaccinated in a medical setting, supervised by a health care provider who is able to recognize and manage severe allergic reactions. Two completely egg-free flu vaccine options are available: quadrivalent recombinant vaccine and quadrivalent cell-based vaccine.
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Why Do I Need A Flu Shot During Pregnancy
Normal changes in your immune system during pregnancy may increase your risk of flu complications. The flu vaccine is the best protection against the flu for you and your baby. Pregnant people are at high risk for severe illness, hospitalization and death if they get the flu. If you get the flu while pregnant it can also cause serious problems for your baby including premature labor and birth defects.
Studies show that getting a flu shot while pregnant can help protect your baby from the flu for up to six months after birth. Breastfeeding after the baby is born helps strengthen their immune system but is not a replacement for getting vaccinated.
Frequently Asked Questions For Patients Concerning Vaccine Safety
How does getting vaccinated during pregnancy protect my unborn baby?
Newborns cannot receive many vaccines until 2-6 months of age. Some of the protection from the vaccines that you get is transferred to your baby during pregnancy. This helps protect your baby from illness during the first months of life.
How do I know what vaccines I need?
Discuss the vaccines that you have had with your health care provider. Your health care provider will recommend the vaccines you need based on your medical history and lifestyle. If you do not receive recommended vaccines during pregnancy, you should get them immediately after your baby is born.
Are vaccines safe for me? Are vaccines safe for my baby?
Vaccination is one of the most important things that you can do for yourself and your baby. Vaccines help protect you and your baby from diseases that you both are at risk of and can make you both seriously ill. Vaccination is safe for you and your baby. For example, flu vaccines have been given safely to millions of pregnant women for more than 50 years.
I have heard that some vaccines contain mercury. Is getting these vaccines during pregnancy safe for my baby?
Thimerosal, a type of mercury, has not been shown to be harmful to pregnant women or unborn babies, and it does not cause autism. The benefits of preventing life-threatening illnesses in a mother and child far outweigh any potential risks of the vaccine.
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Which Flu Shot Is Best For Pregnant Mothers
One of the ingredients that causes some concern in patients is thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative that has been used in certain vaccines for decades.
There is no evidence that flu shots that contain thimerosal are harmful, says Tangela Anderson Tull, MD, an OB-GYN with Hoffman and Associatesin Baltimore, Maryland. But there are thimerosal-free flu shots available if that would put you at ease.
The one flu vaccine you should avoid while pregnant, Dr. Anderson Tull says is FluMist, the nasal spray flu vaccine.
The Vaccines You Need During Pregnancy
For 30 years, no one wanted to touch a pregnant woman with a vaccine. Now, theyre indispensable life-savers for both mother and baby.
This guide was originally published on May 13, 2019.
After learning she was pregnant with twins in the fall of 2009, Genevieve Holmes got a flu shot as soon as one became available but it was too late. I was exposed to flu before I got my immunization and was sick enough to remember thinking that I understood now how people died of flu, Holmes said. Though shed heard both twins heartbeats the day before she became ill, there was only one after, she continued. I will never forget what it feels like to have so much joy turn into such a tearing of grief.
Vaccines have proven indispensable lifesavers for both mothers and babies, yet theyve only been promoted heavily to pregnant women in the past 10 to 20 years. The climate for maternal immunization is totally different than what it used to be, said Dr. Kathryn Edwards, M.D., a professor of pediatric infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. For 30 years, no one wanted to touch a pregnant woman with a vaccine.
To help you better understand the vaccines recommended during pregnancy and when to receive them, I read more than five dozen scientific studies and spoke with four experts on maternal vaccination.
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Facts About Flu Vaccination Treatment And Pregnancy
More information on the importance of flu vaccination during pregnancy is available.
More information on the safety of flu vaccination is available.
Iv2 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
LAIV contains standardized quantities of FFU of live attenuated influenza virus reassortants. The virus strains in LAIV are cold-adapted and temperature sensitive, so they replicate in the nasal mucosa rather than the lower respiratory tract, and they are attenuated, so they do not produce ILI. There have been no reported or documented cases, and no theoretical or scientific basis to suggest transmission of vaccine virus would occur to the individual administering LAIV. As a live replicating whole virus formulation administered intranasally, it elicits mucosal immunity, which may more closely mimic natural infection.
Vaccine currently authorized for use:
- FluMist® Quadrivalent
Efficacy and effectiveness
After careful review of the available Canadian and international LAIV VE data over many influenza seasons, NACI concluded that the current evidence is consistent with LAIV providing comparable protection against influenza to that afforded by IIV and does not support a recommendation for the preferential use of LAIV in children 2-17 years of age.
Refer to the Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2018-2019 for detailed information supporting this recommendation.
LAIV4 has shown non-inferiority based on immunogenicity compared to LAIV3 in both children and adults. The immune response to the B strain found only in the quadrivalent formulation was better in children who received the quadrivalent vaccine Footnote 158, Footnote 159, Footnote 160.
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Delivery Of The Flu Shot In 2021
Not all flu shots are the same. Some arent even shots. Here are your 2021 flu vaccine options:
Nasal Spray: The nasal spray vaccine is the only kind to include a live attenuated influenza vaccine. Although it cant give you the flu, it does have a higher likelihood of inducing flu-like symptoms. This vaccine does not contain thimerosal or other preservatives. Its available only for patients aged 2 to 49.
For: People who cant stand the needle or jet spray or who want to avoid preservatives.
Inactivated shots are usually given with a needle, but Afluria Quadrivalent can be given to adults with a jet injector, which is basically a high-powered spray that penetrates the skin.
For: Needles can be used for everyone aged 6 months and older. The jet spray is approved for adults aged 18 to 64.