Tuesday, March 21, 2023

Flu Type B Vs A

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How Does Influenza B Differ From Types A And C

Types of Flu: A, B, C, and D!

Influenza B tends to cause a milder form of the flu than influenza A.

While influenza A can lead to moderate-to-severe flu symptoms across all age groups, and in animals, influenza B only affects humans.

Also, influenza B typically affects children more often than adults. It generally causes stronger symptoms than influenza C.

For more information and resources to help keep you and your loved ones healthy this flu season, visit our dedicated hub.

In many people, the flu goes away on its own without treatment. However, older adults and people with certain underlying health conditions may have a risk of developing serious complications.

Such complications include:

. While they are recovering, a person with the flu should:

  • stay at home
  • avoid contact with other people
  • drink plenty of water

Several over-the-counter medications can help ease the symptoms of influenza. These are available from drug stores.

In severe cases, a doctor may prescribe a course of antiviral drugs. Oseltamivir and zanamivir are drugs that doctors may use to treat type A or type B influenza.

Antiviral drugs can reduce a persons recovery time by around 2 days, but they are only effective if a person takes them within a few days of symptoms starting. Antiviral medicines are available as pills, a liquid, or an inhaled powder.

Anyone with the flu who experiences any of the following symptoms should speak to a doctor as soon as they can:

Signs And Symptoms In Humans

Avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza infections in humans may cause disease ranging from mild upper respiratory infection to rapid progression to severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock and even death. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea has been reported more frequently in A infection. Conjunctivitis has also been reported in influenza A. Disease features such as the incubation period, severity of symptoms and clinical outcome varies by the virus causing infection but mainly manifests with respiratory symptoms.

In many patients infected by A or A avian influenza viruses, the disease has an aggressive clinical course. Common initial symptoms are high fever and cough followed by symptoms of lower respiratory tract involvement including dyspnoea or difficulty breathing. Upper respiratory tract symptoms such as sore throat or coryza are less common. Other symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bleeding from the nose or gums, encephalitis, and chest pain have also been reported in the clinical course of some patients. Complications of infection include severe pneumonia, hypoxemic respiratory failure, multi-organ dysfunction, septic shock, and secondary bacterial and fungal infections. The case fatality rate for A and A subtype virus infections among humans is much higher than that of seasonal influenza infections.

A Vs B: Severity And Recovery

An uncomplicated infection with either influenza A or influenza B can cause symptoms that last around one week. Some people may still have a cough or feel fatigued after two weeks.

Some influenza A subtypes can cause more severe disease than others. For example, in the recent past influenza A viruses have been associated with more hospitalizations and deaths in children and the elderly than in other age groups, according to the CDC.

In the past, it was thought that infection with influenza A was more severe than infection with influenza B. However, a 2015 study in adults with influenza A and influenza B found they both resulted in similar rates of illness and death.

Additionally, in a Canadian study looking at children 16 years old and younger, influenza B infection was associated with a higher risk for mortality than influenza A.

Influenza C is regarded as the least serious of the three types that humans can get. It typically produces a mild respiratory illness in adults. But theres some evidence that it can cause serious respiratory illness in children under age 2.

The CDC estimates that each year, from 2010 to 2018, influenza infection resulted in between 9.3 and 49 million illnesses, 140,000 to 960,000 hospitalizations, and 12,000 to 79,000 deaths.

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When To See A Doctor For Influenza A Or B

A majority of people will ride out the flu from home with only mild-to-moderate symptoms. But sometimes its better to visit your healthcare provider. Anyone with one or more of the risk factors for complications listed above should consider seeing a professional to make sure it doesnt evolve into a more severe disease or respiratory infection.

A healthcare provider might also be necessary for individuals with severe or prolonged symptoms or other complications like difficulty breathing, chest pain, sudden dizziness, vomiting, neck stiffness, or loss of consciousness.

Does The Flu Vaccine Cover Both A And B

Type B Flu on the Rise

Yesevery year. Because the flu virus strains that circulate in the population change every year , manufacturers have to create new vaccines each season. Most vaccines today are quadrivalent, meaning they cover four strains, says Dr. Oller.

These are almost always two flu A viruses and two B viruses. The effectiveness of a vaccine depends on how well it matches the strains that are circulating. If the match is a good one, you can expect the vaccine to be 40 percent to 50 percent effective.

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How Do You Stay Safe From The Flu Again In General

First, get your flu shot. “The flu shot is the most important step in preventing influenza,” says Dr. Shanker-Patel. While getting it doesn’t guarantee you won’t get the flu, it reduces your chances, protects groups who cannot get a flu shot and are at risk of developing serious complications or dying from the flu, and reduces your chance of requiring hospitalization for the flu. Beside that, you should also:

  • Avoid close contact with sick people
  • Cover your coughs and sneezes
  • Wash your hands with soap and water often throughout the day
  • Try not to touch your face
  • Stay on top of the cleaning and disinfecting of surfaces, especially in frequently touched areas

The bottom line: Influenza A and B are both highly contagious in humans and have similar symptoms. Getting your flu vaccine and taking other preventive measures help protect you against both.

Who Is Most At Risk

Children under the age of 5 are at high risk of developing flu complications like pneumonia, dehydration, and brain dysfunction.

Influenza is also especially serious for adults 65 and older because of their weaker immune systems.

Other people at high risk of flu complications are pregnant women and those with asthma, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or cancer.

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Likely Protective Role Of Transformation

Unencapsulated H. influenzae is often observed in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . Neutrophils are also observed in large numbers in sputum from patients with COPD. The neutrophils phagocytize H. influenzae, thereby activating an oxidative respiratory burst. However instead of killing the bacteria the neutrophils are themselves killed . Dearth of killing the bacteria appears to explain the persistence of infection in COPD.

H. influenzae mutants defective in the rec1 gene are very sensitive to killing by the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide. This finding suggests that rec1 expression is important for H. influenzae survival under conditions of oxidative stress. Since it is a homolog of recA, rec1 likely plays a key role in recombinational repair of DNA damage. Thus H. influenzae may protect its genome against the reactive oxygen species produced by the host’s phagocytic cells through recombinational repair of oxidative DNA damages. Recombinational repair of a damaged site of a chromosome requires, in addition to rec1, a second homologous undamaged DNA molecule. Individual H. influenzae cells are capable of taking up homologous DNA from other cells by the process of transformation. Transformation in H. influenzae involves at least 15 gene products, and is likely an adaptation for repairing DNA damage in the resident chromosome.

Vaccines that target unencapsulated H. influenzae serotypes are in development.

I Think I Have Influenza Should I See A Doctor

Dr. O Talks About Flu Type B

Most people who are generally healthy wont need to see their doctor for the flu. As symptoms of the flu are similar to COVID-19, talk to your doctor about testing for COVID-19 infection.

If you have the flu, try to rest, maintain a good fluid intake, and manage your symptoms. This will help you recover and prevent dehydration. Your immune system will fight the infection and symptoms will usually clear up on their own.

If you do need to see a GP for your symptoms, make sure you call ahead first so they can make sure theres no one in an at-risk group around when you have your appointment.

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Symptoms Of Influenza B

Flu B symptoms are often said to be milder than symptoms caused by influenza A. However, flu B can be just as dangerous as flu A, especially in high-risk populations including people over 65.

Flu A and B cause the same types of symptoms, so its impossible to tell which variety you have from symptoms alone. Flu B symptoms often come on quickly and last for about a week. These are the most common flu symptoms:

What To Do About Flu

Covid-19 has killed an astounding 300,000 Americans, but dont forget that influenza, also known as the flu, also typically kills tens of thousands of people in the U.S. each year. Its already flu season in the Northern Hemisphere, so flu viruses are circulating.

Its important to know that a simple flu shot could reduce your risk of getting seriously ill with the flu, and you should get one right away if you havent already. But you should also know about the different types of flu and how they mayor may notaffect you.

Heres what you need to know about each type, including their similarities, differences, and how the vaccine addresses both.

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Genome Structure And Genetics

The Influenza B virus genome is 14,548 nucleotides long and consists of eight segments of linear negative-sense, single-stranded RNA. The multipartite genome is encapsidated, each segment in a separate nucleocapsid, and the nucleocapsids are surrounded by one envelope.

The subtypes of influenza A virus are estimated to have diverged 2,000 years ago. Influenza viruses A and B are estimated to have diverged from a single ancestor around 4,000 years ago, while the ancestor of influenza viruses A and B and the ancestor of influenza virus C are estimated to have diverged from a common ancestor around 8,000 years ago.Metatranscriptomics studies have also identified closely related “Influenza B-like” viruses such as the Wuhan spiny eel influenza virus and also “Influenza-B like” viruses in a number of vertebrate species such as salamanders and fish.

Host Range And Distribution

Types of Influenza Viruses

Influenza viruses A, B, and C are able to infect humans but only the A and B viruses are responsible for annual epidemics, and only the type A is linked to the origin of pandemics. The B and C viruses mainly infect humans, but it has shown its presence in seals and sea lions and dogs and pigs . Type A viruses are also able to infect several species of land and marine mammals however, these viruses primarily infect birds . In birds, the virus multiplies mainly in the digestive tract and the infection is usually asymptomatic. Wild aquatic birds, in which all viral subtypes A have been found , are considered the main reservoirs of the genetic diversity of these type A viruses.

Aristea Grammoustianou, Electra Gizeli, in, 2018

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Demographics Baseline Characteristics And Clinical Characterization

Overall, 75,164 confirmed patients with COVID19 infection, 113,818 with influenza type A and 9266 with influenza type B were included in the metaanalysis, of which 51% of COVID19, 54% of influenza type A and 52% of influenza type B included patients who were male. Funnel plots for included studies did not detect significant publication bias . Table Table11 shows that most patients of COVID19 , influenza type A and influenza type B had fever. Cough was the second most common symptom presenting in the patients of COVID19 , influenza type A and influenza type B . Runny nose was the third most common symptom presenting in the patients of influenza type A and influenza type B of patients. While runny nose was less common symptom in COVID19 and it is presented in 14% of patients. Also, fatigue was the fourth most common symptom in influenza type A , while it was less common in COVID19 and influenza type B patients. Dyspnea was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . Likewise, sore throat was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . Also, rhinorrhea was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . There was no information about coryza in COVID19 patients, while it is presented in influenza type A by 47% and influenza type B by 32% of the patients .

Flu Strains Explained And How The Vaccine Works

As we approach flu season, UAB Medicine already is getting questions about the different strains of the flu virus and the vaccine itself. With expert input from Rachael Lee, MD, assistant professor in the UAB Division of Infectious Diseases, we explain the differences in flu strains, including how many strains exist and what the flu shot will cover this year. We also answer some common questions, such as whether the flu shot for one strain reduces the risk of contracting another strain and whether flu vaccines are reissued after the virus mutates during the course of the season.

Understanding Flu Types

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , there are four types of flu viruses: influenza A, B, C, and D. The seasonal flu viruses that humans face every winter season in the United States are caused by human influenza A. Influenza A viruses are categorized as either the hemagglutinin subtype or the neuraminidase subtype based on the proteins involved, and there are 18 distinct subtypes of hemagglutinin and 11 distinct subtypes of neuraminidase. Influenza A is the primary cause of flu epidemics, and they constantly change and are difficult to predict.

This Years Flu Shot

Dr. Lee says this years flu vaccine covers four strains of the flu that are recommended by the World Health Organization. The strains recommended for vaccination for the 2020-2021 flu season in the northern hemisphere are:

Flu Shot Effectiveness

Benefits of the Vaccine

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How Can I Help Prevent The Flu In My Child

The best way to prevent flu is to have the yearly flu vaccine. The flu vaccine is given as a shot . A nasal spray is not recommended for the 2017-2018 flu season. The CDC says this is because the nasal spray did not seem to protect against the flu over the last several flu seasons.

Each year, a new flu vaccine is available before the start of the flu season. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions about how vaccines work and how well they prevent flu. The first time a child between the ages of 6 months and 8 years gets a flu vaccine, he or she will need a second flu vaccine one month later.

The vaccine is advised for all children 6 months and older. But for some children, its more critical for them to get a flu shot. The flu shot should be given to any child who has any of these:

  • A long-term heart or lung condition

  • An endocrine disorder such as diabetes

  • A kidney or liver disorder

  • Weak immune system from HIV/AIDS or long-term steroids

  • A blood disorder such as sickle cell disease

A flu shot should also be given to:

  • A child who has a family member with a chronic health condition

  • A child or teen taking aspirin as long-term therapy

  • A child with parents or caregivers at high risk of complications from the flu

Some side effects of the vaccine can be like mild flu symptoms, but the vaccine does not cause the flu. Possible side effects of the flu vaccine include:

And you can help prevent your child spreading the flu to others if you:

Preparations Available For Use In Canada

What is influenza?

Haemophilus influenzae type b-containing vaccines

  • Act-HIB® , Sanofi Pasteur SA , Sanofi Pasteur Ltd. .
  • HIBERIX® , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX®-IPV/Hib , GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • INFANRIX hexa⢠, inactivated poliomyelitis and conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine ), GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • PEDIACEL® ), Sanofi Pasteur Ltd.

The amounts of tetanus protein carriers used in Hib conjugate vaccines should not be considered immunizing agents against tetanus disease.

For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within Health Canada’s authorized product monographs available through the Drug Product Database. Refer to Table 1 in Contents of Immunizing Agents Available in Canada in Part 1 for a list of all vaccines available for use in Canada and their contents.

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Eligibility And Inclusion Criteria

Studies to be eligible for inclusion in our metaanalysis had to have following predetermined criteria. All casecontrol, crosssectional, cohort studies, case reports and case series peerreviewed studies were included if they reported the number of confirmed cases of patients with demographic data clinical data radiology data laboratory data risk factor data. Also, influenza virus studies from 2000 to 2020 were included.

The Flu Vs Coronavirus

The flu virus and coronavirus are two totally different types of virus, and each has many different varieties. Think of it this way. An apple and an orange are both fruit but completely different fruits, says Dr. Septimus.

There are other, milder types of coronaviruses besides SARS-CoV-2 that are responsible for cases of the common cold, and they can produce similar symptoms as the flu.

But the Covid-19-causing coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 has a wider range of symptoms, says Dr. Septimus. It also takes longer to produce symptoms and is infectious for longer.

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