Who Should Get Immunised Against Pneumococcal Disease
Anyone who wants to protect themselves against pneumococcal disease can talk to their doctor about getting immunised.
Pneumococcal immunisation is recommended for:
- infants and children aged under 5 years
- non-Indigenous adults aged 70 years and over without medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 5 years living in Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 50 years and over without medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
- infants under 12 months diagnosed with certain medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
- people over 12 months with certain medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
There are two types of pneumococcal vaccine provided free under the National Immunisation Program for different age groups and circumstances:
Refer to the NIP schedule for vaccine dosage information. Your doctor or vaccination provider will advise if you or your child have a specified medical risk condition.
Refer to the pneumococcal recommendations in the Australian Immunisation Handbook for more information.
Frequently Asked Questions About The Flu Jab Pneumococcal Vaccination And Covid
The vaccination campaign for seasonal flu is starting. About 6 million people living in the Netherlands will receive an invitation to get the flu jab in the next few months. This involves people who are at higher risk of becoming seriously ill from the flu. Flu is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the flu virus (also known as influenza.
People aged 69 to 73 years will be offered pneumococcal vaccination this autumn. This group includes all people born from 1 January 1948 through 31 December 1952. Pneumococci are bacteria that can cause you to become seriously ill. The pneumococcal vaccination is often given at the same time as the flu jab.
Since 2020, we have also been dealing with the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. Most people in the Netherlands have been vaccinated against the coronavirus. The symptoms caused by coronavirus disease are similar to the symptoms of flu. COVID-19, flu and pneumococcal disease can all lead to pneumonia. The following overview covers frequently asked questions about COVID-19, the flu and the flu jab, and pneumococcal disease and the pneumococcal vaccination.
No. It is fine to receive these vaccinations within a short time period. Our immune system can respond to several different pathogens or vaccines at the same time. Infants also receive several vaccinations against different diseases within a short time, to protect them properly.
Search Strategy And Statistical Analysis
We systematically searched the published literature for studies investigating influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rate in scleroderma patients, following PRISMA guidelines. The main database used was PubMed. The systematic search for vaccination coverage was conducted in May 2021 using the string OR OR OR ) AND OR ) AND OR OR ). Relevant studies and subsequent data extraction were undertaken entirely by a reviewer with advice from a second reviewer , which also screened a random, overlapping portion of the retrieved studies to check for the agreement consistency.
We used data from Murdaca et al., 2021 and Murdaca et al., 2020 to analyze the coverage rate in relation to three successive vaccination years and in relation to patients ages. Comparisons for these data were done by Fishers exact test and vaccine rates are given with 95% confidence interval .
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Who Should Get Pneumococcal Vaccines
CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old and all adults 65 years or older. In certain situations, older children and other adults should also get pneumococcal vaccines. Below is more information about who should and should not get each type of pneumococcal vaccine.
Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.
Will Vaccination Against Flu Pneumonia And Shingles Help Prevent Covid
The short answer is no. But lowering your risk of vaccine-preventable diseases will help you avoid doctors offices and hospitals, which will reduce any potential exposure to the coronavirus, Privor-Dumm says.
Plus, Privor-Dumm adds, Preventing serious disease can help keep you out of the hospital at a time when health resources may be needed to treat COVID-19 patients.
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Who Shouldnt Get Prevnar 13
A number of people shouldnt get Prevnar 13. And some people should only get it after theyve been cleared by their healthcare provider.
So, before you get either Prevnar 13, tell your health provider if you have any of the following medical conditions or circumstances:
Have had any life-threatening allergic reaction to or have a severe allergy to pneumococcal vaccines, such as Prevnar 7 , Prevnar 13, or Pneumovax 23
Have had a life-threatening reaction in the past to a vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid .
You arent feeling well on the day of your vaccine. If you have a minor illness like a cold, you can probably still get vaccinated. But if you have a more serious illness, you should probably wait until you recover.
In addition to these, if your child was born premature, a healthcare provider will weigh the risks and benefits of vaccinating your child with Prevnar 13. There have been reports of apnea in premature infants who received intramuscular vaccines like Prevnar 13. Apnea is a type of slowed breathing that can be dangerous.
Flu And Pneumococcal Vaccines
The composition of the influenza vaccine is updated every year according to the indications of the World Health Organization . These indications are based on epidemiological and virological information collected by the Global network of 146 Collaborative National Influenza Center, active all year round. This allows not only to monitor the global trend of influenza transmission but also to identify the circulating strains and precisely select those to be included in the vaccine composition.
The antigenic characteristics of the influenza viral strains that circulated in the previous flu season provide the basis for selecting the strains to be included in the vaccine of the following year and the WHO issues recommendations on the vaccine composition generally in February to allow companies to produce the amount of vaccine required.
The pneumococcal vaccine includes instead two doses that do not have to be repeated in the following years: firstly, a dose of conjugate vaccine , and after that the second dose of polysaccharide vaccine , at least 2 months apart.
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Pneumococcal Diseases & Pneumonia Shots
There is a category of diseases called pneumococcal disease, of which pneumonia is one of the most dangerousthe other most dangerous being meningitis. People with diabetes are about three times more likely to die with flu and pneumococcal diseases, yet most dont get a simple, safe pneumonia shot.
Symptoms of pneumonia include:
Cough that can produce mucus that is gray, yellow, or streaked with blood Chest pain
Efficacy And Safety Of Anti
Several reviews and meta-analyses confirmed that immunization against influenza is safe and immunogenic for immunocompromised patients, leading to a seroconversion rate comparable to healthy controls without presenting severe adverse reactions . Different studies provided evidence of no negative outcomes in patients with autoimmune disease immunized with influenza and pneumococcal vaccination .
For what concerns efficacy, it was extensively investigated for immunocompromised patients. EMA claims that the ability to mount an efficacious response to influenza vaccine will depend on the type and severity of the immunodeficiency and that data on immunogenicity should be obtained from specific or selected subsets of immunocompromised patients .
These observations furtherly support that the vaccine immunization must be promoted for SSc patients, enhancing the vaccination rate, and improving the clinical counselling to prevent infections .
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What Is Pneumovax 23 And Who Should Get It
Pneumovax 23 is another pneumococcal vaccine. Its more commonly used in adults than children, but it can be used in people as young as 2 years old. Because of the way the vaccine works, it isnt effective for infants and children under 2 years old.
Most adults dont need a pneumococcal vaccine until they reach the age of 65. Once you turn 65 years old, the CDC recommends that you get Pneumovax 23. If youre between the ages of 2 and 64, you may want to consider getting the vaccine if you have certain medical conditions or if you smoke cigarettes.
Pneumovax 23 can be administered either subcutaneously or IM. Studies show that one dose of Pneumovax 23 protects 60% to 70% of healthy adults against serious pneumococcal disease.
How Well It Works
PCV has about a 97% effectiveness rate in preventing pneumococcal disease in healthy children who received all four vaccine doses and a 94% rate for healthy children who received two doses.
Some research shows that PPV helps prevent pneumonia in younger healthy people but not in older people or those with impaired immune systems.footnote 1 Other studies show that the vaccine does not reduce the risk of pneumonia in adults, but it can prevent some of the serious complications of pneumonia.footnote 2
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What To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Who needs it: The CDC recommends one pneumococcal vaccine for adults 19 to 64 with certain risk factors . If you work around chronically ill people say, in a hospital or nursing home you should get the vaccine, even if you’re healthy. People 65 and older can discuss with their health care provider whether they should get PCV13 if they haven’t previously received a dose. A dose of PPSV23 is recommended for those 65 and older, regardless of previous inoculations with pneumococcal vaccines.
How often: Space immunizations out. You should receive a dose of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , then, a year later, a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . People with any of the risk factors should get one dose of PCV13 and PPSV23 before age 65, separated by eight weeks.
Why you need it: Pneumococcal disease, which can cause pneumonia, kills around 3,000 people a year. Young children and those over 65 have the highest incidence of serious illness, and older adults are more likely to die from it.
Editors note: This article was published on Oct. 26, 2020. It was updated in September 2021 with new information.
Also of Interest
Infections And Systemic Sclerosis
Autoimmune diseases are conditions with heterogeneous prevalence, manifestations, and pathogenesis. The etiology is not completely clear however, these diseases are due to a mistakenly targets recognition of the immune system that attacks and causes damage to normal tissues such as skin, kidney, pancreas, nervous system, and joints. Also, immunological dysregulation in response to excessive environmental stimulation is described .
Patients with multiorgan involvement diseases and treated with corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapies need special attention to prevent infections and to plan early therapy intervention . The higher prevalence of infections and the higher risk of mortality, hospitalization, and complications for SSc patients, make the antiflu and antipneumococcal infection vaccination particularly crucial .
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Number And Timing Of Doses
Vaccinate all children younger than 2 years old with PCV13. The primary series consists of 3 doses routinely given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. You can administer the first dose as early as 6 weeks of age. CDC recommends a fourth dose at 12 through 15 months of age. For children vaccinated when they are younger than 12 months of age, the minimum interval between doses is 4 weeks. Separate doses given at 12 months of age and older by at least 8 weeks.
The number and timing of doses for older children and adults depends on the medical indication, prior pneumococcal vaccination, and age. See Pneumococcal Vaccination: Summary of Who and When to Vaccinate for all pneumococcal vaccine recommendations by vaccine and age.
Who Should Get The Pneumonia Vaccine
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the pneumococcal vaccine for those who fall into the following groups:
- All babies and children younger than 2 years old.
- All adults 65 years or older.
- Adults 19 through 64 years old who smoke cigarettes.
- Children older than 2 and adults younger than 65 who have certain chronic diseases .
- Those who are at increased risk for certain diseases and those who have impaired immune systems.
The recommendations are sometimes confusing, so its a good idea to talk to your healthcare provider about your questions and concerns, Dr. Suri says.
And dont wait to have that conversation. This is an infection you see year-round, she adds.
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Pneumococcal Vaccines Are Safe But Side Effects Can Occur
Most people who get a pneumococcal vaccine do not have any serious problems with it. However, side effects can occur. Most side effects are mild, meaning they do not affect daily activities.
Mild problems following PCV13, PCV15, or PCV20 can include:
- Reactions where the shot was given
Mild problems following PPSV23 can include:
- Reactions where the shot was given
Finding Vaccines For Children
PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:
- Pediatric and family practice offices
- Community health clinics
- Health departments
- Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers
You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.
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Should You Get A Flu Shot
In general, every person with diabetes needs a flu shot each year. Talk with your doctor about having a flu shot. Flu shots do not give 100% protection, but they do make it less likely for you to catch the flu for about six months.
For extra safety, it’s a good idea for the people you live with or spend a lot of time with to get a flu shot, too. You are less likely to get the flu if the people around you don’t have it.
The best time to get your flu shot is beginning in September. The shot takes about two weeks to take effect.
If youre sick , ask if you should wait until you are healthy again before having your flu shot. And don’t get a flu shot if you are allergic to eggs.
You are advised to continue to take the general precautions of preventing seasonal flu and other communicable illnesses and diseases:
- Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash. If you dont have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your elbow, not your hand.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs spread that way.
- Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
- If you get sick, stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.
Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.
- redness where the injection was given
- hardness or swelling where the injection was given
There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .
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Persons With Chronic Diseases
Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.
Asplenia or hyposplenia
Hyposplenic or asplenic individuals should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine, followed by a booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.
Chronic kidney disease and patients on dialysis
Individuals with chronic kidney disease should receive age appropriate pneumococcal vaccines. Children less than 18 years of age with chronic kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome, should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with chronic kidney failure should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with nephrotic syndrome should receive Pneu-C-13 and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Due to the decreased immunogenicity and efficacy of Pneu-P-23 vaccine in children and adults with chronic kidney failure, 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.
Chronic lung disease, including asthma
Chronic heart disease
Chronic liver disease
Endocrine and metabolic diseases
Non-malignant hematologic disorders
What Are The Similarities Between Pneumococcal Vaccine And Flu Vaccine
- Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine are two types of different vaccines.
- Both vaccine types contain the attenuated or weakened pathogen.
- These vaccine types enhance adaptive immunity.
- Both vaccines types are recommended by the World Health Organization for children and adults.
- They protect the lives of millions of people worldwide.
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When To Get The Vaccine
Thereâs no such thing as pneumonia season, like flu season. If you and your doctor decide that you need to have a pneumonia vaccine, you can get it done at any time of the year. If itâs flu season, you can even get a pneumonia vaccine at the same time that you get a flu vaccine, as long as you receive each shot in a different arm.
Common And Local Adverse Events
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
Studies of Pneu-C-13 vaccine indicated that irritability decreased appetite increased or decreased sleep and pain, swelling and redness at the injection site after the toddler dose and in older children, are common side effects. Low grade fever occurred in 20% to 30% or more of vaccine recipients. In adults over 50 years of age, the most commonly reported side effects included pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache and new onset of myalgia, with fever above 38Â°C occurring in approximately 3% of vaccine recipients.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
Reactions to Pneu-P-23 vaccine are usually mild. Soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site occur in 30% to 60% of vaccine recipients and more commonly follow SC administration than IM administration. Occasionally, low grade fever may occur. Re-immunization of healthy adults less than 2 years after the initial dose is associated with increased injection site and systemic reactions. Studies have suggested that re-vaccination after an interval of at least 4 years is not associated with an increased incidence of adverse side effects. However, severe injection site reactions, including reports of injection site cellulitis and peripheral edema in the injected extremity, have been documented rarely with Pneu-P-23 vaccine in post-marketing surveillance, even with the first dose. Multiple re-vaccinations are not recommended refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.
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