Rapid Response To Pandemic Flu
The rapid development, production, and distribution of pandemic influenza vaccines could potentially save millions of lives during an influenza pandemic. Due to the short time frame between identification of a pandemic strain and need for vaccination, researchers are looking at novel technologies for vaccine production that could provide better “real-time” access and be produced more affordably, thereby increasing access for people living in low- and moderate-income countries, where an influenza pandemic may likely originate, such as live attenuated technology and recombinant technologies . As of July 2009, more than seventy known clinical trials have been completed or are ongoing for pandemic influenza vaccines. In September 2009, the FDA approved four vaccines against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus , and expected the initial vaccine lots to be available within the following month.
In January 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Audenz as a vaccine for the H5N1 flu virus. Audenz is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine. Audenz is approved for use in persons six months of age and older at increased risk of exposure to the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine.
Keep Taking Covid Precautions After Getting Vaccinated
The truth of the matter is that when we get vaccinated, were still going to need to play it safe. While most people will achieve some level of immunity between two weeks to a month after being vaccinated, a small percentage wont. Depending on your overall health, it also could take your body a little longer to build up a line of defense against the coronavirus.
Researchers are still figuring out how the body uses antibodies and other tools in the immune system to fend off COVID-19, and they dont yet have all the answers. According to Ogbuagu, we really need to achieve herd immunity the point at which transmission is reduced because most people have immunity before its really, truly safe enough to return to normal life.
For this virus, we probably need at least 70% of people to be immune, so that means were going to need to achieve a fairly high vaccination rate, Yang said.
So while theres a solid chance youll be protected once youre fully vaccinated, we should all still plan to practice COVID-prevention measures wearing a mask, avoiding crowded spaces and washing our hands until cases begin to dramatically drop.
This article has been updated with new data on the vaccines.
Experts are still learning about COVID-19. The information in this story is what was known or available as of publication, but guidance can change as scientists discover more about the virus. Please check the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the most updated recommendations.
What You Need To Know About The 2021
While no one knows for sure just how bad the upcoming flu season will be, heres some flu information we know so far:
The 2020-2021 flu season wasunusually mildcompared to whats been seen in past years. This could be due to multiple factors, including higher flu vaccination rates during 2020 and the effect the COVID-19 pandemic has had on social distancing and hand washing. Experts are not sure if this will be the case again for the 2021-2022 flu season.
Flu transmission rates in other countries are lower than usual so far this year. The World Health Organization meets twice a year in February and September to review flu activity around the world and recommend which strains to include in the flu vaccine. Flu transmission in the Southern Hemisphere countries like Australia can help predict what the U.S. flu season might be like. Australia had a record low number of cases of the flu during 2021. Hopefully, that means we will too.
Even though the flu vaccine doesnt protect against all strains of the flu, its still recommended for everyone over the age of 6 months. The flu vaccine is typically about 40% to 60% effective, and its hard to predict if the current flu vaccines will be a good match for the strains going around. But its still one of the best ways to help prevent getting sick with the flu.
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How Long Does It Take To Have Immunity After Vaccination
Both the Pfizer and the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines require the full 2 dose course for the best immune response. Whilst partial protection against COVID-19 may be as soon as 12 days after the first dose, this protection is likely to be short lived. The second dose encourages the body to create stronger protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19.
Individuals may not be fully protected until 7-14 days after their second dose of the Pfizer or AstraZeneca ) vaccine.
Because of this, you can still become ill prior to this time and infect others around you, so you should continue COVIDSafe practices.
With new COVID-19 vaccine developments every day, its normal to have questions or concerns, and possibly feel hesitant about getting a vaccine. That’s why we’re providing accurate, evidence-based answers to questions about COVID-19 vaccines.
Why Do We Need The Flu Vaccine Every Year
Flu vaccines have an excellent safety record. They are the best protection we have against an unpredictable virus which can cause severe illness and deaths each year among at-risk groups. It is important to have a flu vaccine every year because the flu virus is very variable and changes over time. Each year there are different strains around, and a new vaccine has to be prepared to deal with them. Vaccination from previous years is not likely to protect people against current strains of flu.
Each years flu vaccine is made to give the best protection against the strains of flu that are expected to circulate in the coming season. The trivalent vaccine protects against three of the flu virus strains which are most likely to be around. The quadrivalent vaccine protects against four flu virus strains. However, decisions about what to put in the flu vaccine have to be made six months before the flu season starts.
Every February in the Northern Hemisphere, the World Health Organization reviews the types of flu that have been circulating in all parts of the world and chooses the ones which will go into the vaccine for the following autumn. This allows time for the vaccine to be made but it also gives the flu virus time to change before vaccination starts in the autumn. This means that sometimes the flu vaccine may not be a good match for all the strains of flu that are circulating.
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How Do Flu Vaccines Work
Flu vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body about two weeks after vaccination. These antibodies provide protection against infection with circulating influenza viruses.
Seasonal flu vaccines are designed to protect against the influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the upcoming season. All flu vaccines in the United States are quadrivalent vaccines, which means they protect against four different flu viruses: an influenza A virus, an influenza A virus, and two influenza B viruses.
Myth: Flu Vaccines Cause The Flu
Truth: A flu vaccine cant give you the flu.
Flu vaccines cant give you the flu. Here are the reasons that you still get the flu or a flu-like illness after getting a flu vaccine:
- You were exposed to another virus. The flu vaccine only prevents illnesses caused by flu viruses. It cant prevent other viruses. Some viruses that arent the flu have similar symptoms.
- You were exposed to the flu after you got vaccinated and before the vaccine was effective. It takes two weeks after you receive the vaccine for your body to build protection against the flu.
- You were exposed to a flu virus that wasnt included in this years vaccine. The yearly vaccine is developed to protect against flu viruses that research indicates will be the most prevalent that season. Other flu viruses can still circulate.
- You were vaccinated and still got sick. The effectiveness of the vaccine varies from season to season. Its effectiveness also relies on who is vaccinated. If you get a vaccine and get sick, your illness may be milder than if you didnt get vaccinated.
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Ial Vaccination Can Be Risky
While a single dose of either vaccine provides some benefits, relying on partial vaccination for people who are vulnerable or working in high-risk roles is problematic. Its critical we fully vaccinate frontline health-care workers, quarantine workers and people who work and live in aged and disability care as soon as possible.
Another challenge is that all current COVID vaccines are based on the original virus strain but variants now make up the majority of infections in many countries. Some variants are targeted less effectively by vaccines, particularly after only one dose.
Preliminary data suggests that while two doses of the Pfizer vaccine are 88% protective against symptomatic infection with the B.1.617.2 variant, a single dose is only 33% effective.
A similar variant, called B.1.617.1, is behind the current outbreak in Victoria and may respond similarly. This makes it even more important to ensure frontline workers receive both vaccine doses as quickly as possible.
Its also worth noting immune responses to one dose of either the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines decrease with age.
In a pooled analysis of Pfizer and AstraZeneca, older people had lower rates of protection than younger people after a single dose, although older people were protected just as well as younger people after two doses.
How Long After The Second Moderna Vaccine Is It Effective
Jack Roskopp, Digital Content Editor, Graham Media Group
With more and more people getting vaccinated every single day, you might have some questions about the vaccines, including the Moderna variety.
Most importantly, when will the vaccine become effective once youve received both doses of it?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, better known as the CDC, says that it takes about two weeks after the second shot for it to be fully working in your body.
Just because youve had both shots does not mean that you are fully out of the woods just yet.
Scientists are still learning how COVID-19 is spread, so the CDC still recommends that you wear a mask around folks who are not fully vaccinated yet, and continue to properly social distance.
There will be some side effects from getting the shot, too.
Your arm might feel sore after getting the shots, and you may experience tiredness, headaches, chills and even a fever.
The CDC says those symptoms can be worse after the second shot.
Graham Media Group 2021
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Myth: Only Sick People Need A Flu Vaccine
Truth: Even healthy people need a flu vaccine.
Influenza is a contagious disease. It can lead to serious illnesses, like pneumonia. Even healthy people who contract the flu can get sick enough to miss work or school or even be hospitalized. The annual flu vaccine is recommended for everyone who is six months or older.
Some people are at an increased risk of complications from the flu. Getting a flu vaccine every year is even more important for people who belong to these groups:
- Pregnant women
- People with certain chronic medical conditions
Flu Shot Side Effects : What’s Normal And What’s Cause For Concern
All vaccines have the potential to cause side effects, and that includes your yearly flu shot. But most are totally normal.
The coronavirus is still a very real concern this fall, but so is the influenza virus, aka the flu. The good news is we have very safe and effective tools for fighting and preventing both potentially deadly viruses, thanks to the COVID-19 vaccines and the flu vaccine.
According to the CDC, flu shots are safe and one of the best ways to keep from getting and spreading the flu to others. And people who get vaccinated and get sick anyway often experience less severe symptoms. If you’re thinking of getting vaccinated for both COVID-19 and the flu, the CDC says it is safe to get both vaccines together .
The simple fact is, flu vaccines can save lives. There are plenty of myths out there about the flu vaccine, such as the idea that it can give you the flu. While that’s not true, you can experience some side effects from the flu shot. The side effects are usually mild and nothing to worry about, but it’s important to know about them so you’re not worried when you get your vaccine.
Below, Dr. Carmen Teague, specialty medical director at Atrium Health‘s Mecklenburg Medical Group shares what you need to know about common flu shot side effects that are normal, and which side effects may be a sign of something more serious.
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How Long Does It Take For The Flu Shot To Be Effective
Here’s what a doctor who treats the flu says.
Flu season has arrivedand if you haven’t gone for your annual flu shot yet, you’ve probably at least penciled it into your calendar . Seriously, there’s no reason not to. The flu vaccine is simple, takes zero time, and is the best way to reduce your odds of spending a week in flu agony.
But there’s one thing the flu shot can’t do: safeguard you from the flu immediately. In fact, the vaccine needs some time to work its magic.
It takes about two weeks after getting the vaccine for your body to build up enough antibodies to protect against the flu,Jean Moorjani, MD, a pediatrician at Orlando Health Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children, tells Health. That means the flu could still creep up on you during that two-week waiting period.
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This is why it’s important not to see your flu shot as a hall pass and let other flu-preventing precautions fall to the side. You still need to get enough sleep, maintain a healthy diet, and stick to your workout schedule to keep your immune system in fighting shape in case you do encounter the flu virus.
And of course, wash your hands with soap and water regularlyespecially before you eat or touch your eyes, nose, or mouth, all of which are conduits that allow flu viral particles to enter your body and infect you. Even after the two-week wait, never slack on these anti-flu measures.
How Effective Is The Flu Shot
When researchers study vaccines, they’re looking for several types of data that can reveal how well these vaccines work.
- Efficacy is how well a vaccine works in a controlled clinical trial, looking at how many people who got the vaccine ended up getting sick, compared with those who didn’t get the vaccine. If a vaccine has an 80% efficacy at preventing illness, 80% fewer people in the flu-shot group of the clinical trial will get sick.
- Effectiveness is how well the virus works in the real world, usually analyzed through observational studies after a given season is over. Real-world populations are much larger and more variable than those included in clinical trials. If a vaccine has an 80% effectiveness at preventing illness, 80% fewer of the people who get the vaccine will have gotten sick that year.
The average effectiveness at preventing laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza between the 2009-2010 season and 2019-2020 season was about 43%, meaning that people who got the flu vaccine over those years were on average 43% less likely to get sick enough with the flu to go to their doctor and get tested.
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Flu Vaccine Side Effects
Side effects of the flu vaccine are usually mild and go away without treatment in a few days. Common side effects include:
- Soreness, redness, and swelling where the shot was given
- Muscle aches
Rarely, allergic reactions occur, often within minutes of the vaccine being administered. If you experience swelling, racing heart or trouble breathing, seek medical attention immediately. Extremely rarely a person may develop Guillain-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease.
Will There Be Flu Along With Covid
While its not possible to say with certainty what will happen in the fall and winter, CDC believes its likely that flu viruses and the virus that causes COVID-19 will both be spreading. In this context, getting a flu vaccine will be more important than ever. CDC recommends that all people 6 months and older get a yearly flu vaccine.
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More Vaccine Questions Answered
Since the coronavirus pandemic began, Dr. Frank McGeorge has been keeping viewers up-to-date and informed on all fronts.
Hes been answering your questions about the vaccine, the vaccination process and more:
My husband and I were vaccinated and we received a bill afterward — is that a mistake?
Yes. There have been cases of people being inadvertently billed after they received the vaccine, but those errors were identified and corrected. If you receive a bill for the vaccine administration, you should call and point out the error right away.
I had the two doses in December and January and I have been sick for four days now, throwing up, diarrhea headaches, chills, clammy, feel horrible — can I still get the virus?
None of the vaccines are perfect and it is possible to become infected after being vaccinated, but it is unlikely.
If you have symptoms, you should get tested. Fortunately, the vaccines have been shown to be very good at preventing severe illness.
Has anyone who received the two vaccinations and waited the full two weeks for 95% protection tested positive for the virus?
Yes. In the study submitted for Modernas EUA, there were 11 people who received both doses of the vaccine and developed COVID-19, but there were 185 people who developed COVID in the placebo group. Thats where the 95% efficacy comes from.
Are the precautions after receiving the vaccine the same for a high risk person as for the general population?
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