Annual Selection Of Viruses
The composition of influenza vaccines are updated annually by WHO based on information gathered from the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System , a partnership of 141 national influenza centres in 111 countries, 6 WHO collaborating centres and 4 WHO essential regulatory laboratories.
The WHO GISRS collects and analyses influenza virus samples from around the world on an ongoing basis. Each year, 1 or more components of the vaccine designated for the coming influenza season in the northern and/or southern hemisphere might be changed to reflect the most frequent and recent circulating influenza A and B viruses.
Allergic Reactions To The Flu Vaccine
It’s very rare for anyone to have a serious allergic reaction to the flu vaccine. If this does happen, it usually happens within minutes.
The person who vaccinates you will be trained to deal with allergic reactions and treat them immediately.
Anyone can report a suspected side effect of a vaccine through the Yellow Card Scheme.
Johnson & Johnson Partners With The Us Department Of Health And Human Services
Johnson & Johnson announced a collaboration with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response to develop a comprehensive portfolio of therapeutics and vaccines to protect communities in the event of an influenza pandemic. The hope is to help prevent the more than 1 billion cases of influenza globally each year that result in 5 million cases of severe illness and up to a half-million deaths.
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People Who Are Pregnant
During pregnancy, the body goes through many changes that can affect the immune system, heart and lungs. These changes can make it harder for the body to fight off infections.
People who get the flu shot during pregnancy pass on protection to their baby. This is especially important, as babies younger than 6 months can’t get vaccinated against the flu. Getting your flu shot can help protect your baby from the flu after birth.
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Should My Child Get A Flu Shot
Yes. All children over 6 months old should get a flu shot each year.
Babies and children 6 months to 9 years of age who have never had a flu shot will need 2 doses of the vaccine, given at least 4 weeks apart.
Those who have had one or more doses of the regular seasonal flu shot in the past, or children 9 years of age and older, will only need 1 dose per year.
The vaccine is especially important for children and youth who are at high risk of complications from the flu, including those who:
- are between 6 months and 5 years of age.
- have chronic heart or lung disorders serious enough to need regular medical follow-up.
- have chronic conditions that weaken the immune system, such as immune deficiencies, cancer, HIV or a treatment that causes immune suppression.
- have diabetes or other metabolic diseases.
- have chronic kidney disease.
- have to take acetylsalicylic acid on a daily basis.
- live in a chronic care facility.
- live in First Nation or Inuit communities.
- live with another child or adult who is at risk of complications from the flu.
Children under 5 years old are at higher risk of complications from the flu such as high fever, convulsions and pneumonia. If you have children younger than 5 years old or who have health complications, everyone living in the house should get a flu shot. This is especially important if you have children under 6 months old or if a member of your household is pregnant.
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Annual Vaccination Is Recommended
Annual vaccination before the onset of each flu season is recommended. In most parts of Australia, this occurs from June to September.
Immunisation from April provides protection before the peak season. While the flu continues to circulate, it is never too late to vaccinate.
The flu vaccine cannot give you influenza because it does not contain live virus. Some people may still contract the flu because the vaccine may not always protect against all strains of the flu virus circulating in the community.
Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season
The composition of trivalent virus vaccines for use in the 2017â2018 Northern Hemisphere influenza season recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on August 25, 2017, was:
- an A/Michigan/45/2015 pdm09âlike virus
- an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 -like virus
- a B/Brisbane/60/2008âlike virus
In addition to these components, quadrivalent vaccines will also include a B/Phuket/3073/2013âlike virus .
In California, some emergency systems were strained by a spike in H3N2 flu cases. In addition, some areas experienced local shortages of oseltamivir. The severity of the flu season seemed somewhat comparable to the 2009â10 swine flu outbreak. A February 2018 CDC interim report estimated the vaccine effectiveness to be 25% against H3N2, 67% against H1N1, and 42% against influenza B.
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Can My Child Get The Flu Vaccine At The Same Time As Another Childhood Vaccine Including The Covid
Yes. It is safe to get the seasonal flu vaccine at the same time as any childhood vaccine, including the COVID-19 vaccine. Many children are behind with their childhood vaccines or boosters because of the COVID-19 pandemic and getting the vaccines at the same time can help them catch up more quickly.
For children 5 to 11 years old, it may be best to wait at least 14 days between the COVID-19 and other vaccines. The reason for this is that if any side effects happen, doctors will know which vaccine they are related to. But only space out vaccines if you are sure that no other vaccines your child needs will be given late.
How To Get Vaccinated Against Influenza
Influenza vaccines are given as an injection, usually in the upper arm. It is important to get the right vaccine for your age. Your immunisation provider can tell you which vaccine they will use for you or your child’s influenza immunisation.
Influenza vaccines available under the NIP for the 2022 season include:
- VaxiGrip Tetra
The Therapeutic Goods Administration website provides product information and consumer medicine information for each vaccine available.
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What Do We Know About The 2021 Flu Season
A person can be infected with influenza at any time of the year. But in Australia flu infections tend to be more common between June and September. This is what is referred to as the flu season.
In 2021, fewer Australians were diagnosed with influenza than in previous years.1,2 Physical distancing and hygiene measures put in place to slow COVID-19 transmission likely also slowed the spread of other infectious diseases, including influenza.3 As international borders gradually reopen and people start moving about, including those who have recently returned from overseas, the rate of influenza transmission is expected to increase. This may potentially occur outside of the usual flu season.
Although the current rate of influenza infections appears low, the flu can still cause serious illness, particularly among those at high risk such as the elderly, says Dr Anna Samecki, medical adviser at NPS MedicineWise.
The same is true for COVID-19 infections in the Australian community. Public health advice about maintaining physical distance, wearing masks and practicing good hygiene have helped keep community levels of transmission low. But outbreaks have occurred and will continue to do so as long as the SARS-CoV-2 virus is around.
As with influenza vaccinations, having a COVID-19 vaccination provides an extra level of protection against being infected and also helps slow the spread of infection to others who may be more vulnerable to severe complications.
What To Expect When You Get Your Flu Vaccine
If your appointment is at your GP or healthcare provider, a nurse will most likely give you the vaccine. Many local pharmacists also give flu jab to people aged 13 and older.
After your vaccination, you may be asked to wait for up to 20 minutes so that treatment can be given quickly if a very rare, severe allergic reaction occurs. Many people aged 13 years and older will only need to wait 5minutes. Children under 13 years will need to wait 20 minutes.
No matter how long your waiting period is, you should avoid driving, cycling or using any other only walk, take public transport or be driven by another person for 20 minutes after your vaccination. After 20 minutes you are able to drive, cycle or use another mobility device.
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The History Of The Flu Vaccine From 1940 To 2030
Home> Blog> The History of the Flu Vaccine From 1940 to 2030?
Featured on BBC Twos Trust Me, Im a Doctor, the history of the influenza virus and development of a new type of influenza vaccine a Universal Influenza Vaccine provided viewers with some useful and interesting insight. Unlike the current conventional vaccine, this new future vaccine would protect people over multiple seasons, and even in the event that a brand new flu virus appears, as happened in 2009.
We aim to develop a Universal Influenza Vaccine which means people do not need to be vaccinated each year, and are prepared for the unexpected. In this blog, were going to be exploring the history of the vaccine as well as a brief history of the virus itself to set the scene.
Who Should Not Get The Flu Shot
Very few children should NOT get a flu shot:
- Babies under 6 months of age. Although the vaccine is not harmful to babies less than 6 months old, it does not work.
- If your child has a serious allergy to thimerosal , a thimerosal-free vaccine should be given.
The influenza vaccine is safe for individuals with an egg allergy.
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How Colds And Flu Spread
Colds are most contagious in the first 2 to 4 days after symptoms start. But they can spread up to a few weeks after that. Your symptoms will usually show up 2 to 3 days after you’ve been infected, so you may not know you’re sick when you first get the virus.
You can give other people your cold just by being around them. Your sneezes and coughs can send virus particles as far as 12 feet through the air where they can land in someone’s mouth or nose or be inhaled into the lungs. Others can also catch your cold if they touch you or something you’ve come into contact with and then touch their mouth or nose.
Like the common cold, the flu is caused by a virus, and it’s likely to spread through coughs, sneezes, or even talking. Those actions can send droplets up to 6 feet away. It’s also possible to get the flu by touching something with the virus on it and then touching your mouth or nose, but that’s less likely.
You can be contagious before you even know you’re sick. The virus usually enters your body 1 to 4 days before you have any symptoms, and you can give it to someone a day before you feel anything up to 5 to 7 days after. And kids are contagious even longer. They can spread the virus for another week.
Some people never show symptoms but can still give it to others.
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Q. Daughters privacy: Yesterday my neighbor told me her sons best friend wants to ask out my daughter. All three go to the same high school and are close in grade levels. We carpool, and the friend wants to ride with us one day so he can say hi to my daughter. They dont have any classes together, and I dont think they have met before. He has seen her around and thinks she is cute. The boy is very nice, and I think its very sweet. The only problem is that my daughter came out to me earlier this year. She is young and still on her journey of discovering who she is, so this information was shared with me alone. Even her father does not know. I feel it is up to her to share when she is comfortable and ready. I told the neighbor if the boy wants to ride with us, the more the merrier, but I didnt really know what else to say. I dont want my daughter to think Im trying to set her up with a boy. Should I just make an excuse to get out of him riding with us? I dont want to encourage him when I know she wont be interested. Im at a loss for how to handle this.
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Available Vaccines And Vaccination Campaigns
Because new strains of influenza appear frequently, the seasonal flu vaccine usually changes each year. Each season vaccine is generally designed to protect against three strains of influenza: two A strains, and one B strain. From start to finishthe selection of which three strains to target with the vaccine, to the production of the final productthe development process for the seasonal flu vaccine can take up to eight months.
Influenza surveillance centers around the world monitor the circulating influenza strains for trends year-round. Genetic data is collected and new mutations are identified. The World Health Organization is then responsible for selecting three strains most likely to genetically resemble strains circulating in the coming winter flu season. For the northern hemisphere winter, this decision is made in the February prior. In some cases, one of the strains used in the previous years vaccine may be chosen again, if that strain continues to circulate. From this point, the development and production of the vaccine can begin.
Four to five months after the three vaccine strains have been selected , the three vaccine strains that have been developed are separately tested for purity and potency. Only after individual testing is completed are the three strains combined into a single seasonal vaccine.
How Long Did It Take To Develop The Flu Vaccine
- The first flu vaccine was licensed for civilian use in the U.S. in 1945.
- Dr. Jonas Salk was one of the lead researchers.
- Nearly 200 million doses of vaccine were expected to be manufactured this flu season.
The 1918 influenza pandemic infected an estimated 500 million people worldwide and left 675,000 people dead in the United States, according to the CDC.
But it wasn’t until 1945 – nearly three decades later – that the first flu vaccine was licensed for civilian use in the U.S.
In contrast, an effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine was developed in less than a year. Historically, vaccines have taken years to make it to distribution.
The first-ever vaccine to be developed was for smallpox in 1796, according to the World Health Organization.
Today, vaccines are available for more than two dozen diseases. Many of the shots, like those for measles and chickenpox, are considered routine.
Scientists dedicate their entire careers to researching vaccines. Dr. Jonas Salk, famous for creating the polio vaccine in the 1950s, was one of the lead researchers on the flu vaccine a decade earlier. Before Salk died at age 80 in 1995, he worked on a vaccine for HIV, which still hasn’t come to fruition.
Since Salk’s early work on the flu vaccine, it’s become one of the most common shots given.
Here’s a look back at some of the key moments in the history of influenza and the flu vaccine, based on a timeline from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
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The Thirties: Virus Isolation And The Firstexperimental Vaccines
During the 1918-1919 pandemic, some scientists began to suspect that bacteria were not the real agent of influenza disease. One of these was the scholar Richard Edwin Shope , who deeply investigated swine flu in 1920. However, it was only in 1932-1933 that the English scientists Wilson Smith , Sir Christopher Andrewes and Sir Patrick Laidlaw , working at the Medical Research Council at Mill Hill, first isolated the influenza A virus from nasal secretions of infected patients, thereby demonstrating the intranasal human transmission of this virus . A few years later, the American virologist and epidemiologist Thomas Francis Junior and Smith, in England, were able to transmit the virus to mice . Subsequently, in 1935, Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Smith separately discovered that the flu virus could be grown on the chorio-allantoid membrane of embryonated hens’ eggs , and in 1936 the first neutralized antibodies generated by infection by human influenza virus were isolated .
In the next five years, important developments took place: the demonstration that the virus inactivated by formalin was immunogenic in humans, purification of the virus by means of high-speed centrifugation, and the discovery that the influenza virus grew easily in fertilized hen eggs, a procedure that is still used today to manufacture most influenza vaccines .
The first clinical trials of influenza vaccines were conducted in the mid-1930s .
Reactions Which May Occur To A Weekly Allergy Injection Include But May Not Be Limited To:
Delayed Reaction: Some patients develop swelling, itching or bruising several hours and up to three days after injection. This can be minimized by taking a long-acting antihistamine prior to the injection. Examples include: Claritin, Allegra, Clarinex, and Zyrtec.
Large Local Reaction: Immediate or delayed redness or swelling that is larger than a 50 cent piece and lasts more than 24 hours may require icing and taking an antihistamine such as Benadryl . Please avoid driving after taking 50 mgs of Benadryl.
General or Systemic Reaction: These reactions are rare and usually occur within minutes. Potentially very serious symptoms include chest tightness, difficulty breathing, coughing, wheezing, hives, generalized itching or flushing, mouth or throat swelling, fainting or collapsing. The patient must seek immediate emergency medical treatment if these symptoms occur. First, an Epi-Pen should be used to inject epinephrine into the leg. Only then should the patient call 911.
If a patient becomes pregnant while being treated for allergies, she should immediately stop treatment and contact our clinic.
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