Tuesday, March 28, 2023

How To Administer Flu Vaccine

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One Spray In Each Nostrilno Sniff Required1

Clinical Skills: Administering Vaccinations
  • Patients can breathe normally during administration1
  • No need to re-administer if sneezing, dripping, or swallowing occurs2
  • Patients will receive a sufficient dose even if they sneeze or swallow, or if dripping occurs2
  • FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT is formulated with more attenuated infectious units of each of the 4 component viral strains than needed to develop the immune response1,3

Flu Vaccine For Frontline Health And Social Care Workers

If you’re a frontline health and social care worker, your employer should offer you a flu vaccine. They may give the vaccine at your workplace.

You can also have an NHS flu vaccine at a GP surgery or a pharmacy if:

  • you’re a health or social care worker employed by a registered residential care or nursing home, registered homecare organisation or a hospice
  • you work in NHS primary care and have direct contact with patients this includes contractors, non-clinical staff and locums
  • you provide health or social care through direct payments or personal health budgets, or both

Flu Vaccine Side Effects

Flu vaccines are very safe. All adult flu vaccines are given by injection into the muscle of the upper arm.

Most side effects are mild and only last for a day or so, such as:

  • slightly raised temperature
  • muscle aches
  • sore arm where the needle went in this is more likely to happen with the vaccine for people aged 65 and over

Try these tips to help reduce the discomfort:

  • continue to move your arm regularly
  • take a painkiller, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen some people, including those who are pregnant, should not take ibuprofen unless a doctor recommends it

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Who Should Be Immunised Against Influenza

Immunisation against the flu is recommended for everyone aged 6 months and over.

Some people are more at risk of complications from the flu and are eligible for free vaccination.

People with an underlying medical condition or reduced immunity are most at risk and should be immunised against the flu. They include:

  • anyone aged 65 years and older
  • pregnant women
  • all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged from 6 months and over
  • people 6 months or older with:
  • people who are obese
  • people who are addicted to alcohol
  • people who are homeless
  • residents in nursing homes or other long-term care facilities
  • people involved in the commercial poultry and pig industry
  • people who provide essential community services
  • anyone visiting parts of the world where the flu is circulating, especially if travelling in a group.
  • Speak to your immunisation provider to see if you are eligible for a free flu vaccine.

    How The Influenza Vaccine Works

    College Students Get

    The influenza viruses change every year because the influenza virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This means that even if you had the flu or an immunisation one year, your bodys immune system might be unable to fight the changed version of the virus that will be circulating the following year.

    Each year, a new vaccine is developed and is available for those who wish to be immunised. The seasonal flu vaccine includes protection against four strains of influenza viruses.

    The flu vaccine cannot give you the flu because it does not contain live virus. Some people may still contract the flu because the vaccine may not always protect against all strains of the influenza virus circulating in the community.

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    Concerns About Side Effects

    If the side effects following immunisation are unexpected, persistent, or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.

    Immunisation side effects may be reported to SAEFVIC, the central vaccine reporting service in Victoria on .

    You can discuss how to report problems in other states or territories with your immunisation provider.

    Who Should Not Receive A Flu Shot:

    Most people should be vaccinated for influenza each year, But some people should not be vaccinated, or should not receive some types of influenza vaccines, depending upon things such as their age, health and whether they have certain allergies.

    Information about who cannot get a flu vaccine and who should talk to their doctor before getting a flu vaccine is available at Who Should & Who Should NOT Get Vaccinated.

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    People At High Risk Of Complications From The Flu

    • people with health conditions, such as:
    • cancer and other immune compromising conditions
    • diabetes
    • kidney disease
    • neurological or neurodevelopmental conditions
    • children up to 18 years of age undergoing treatment for long periods with acetylsalicylic acid
  • people 65 years and older
  • people who live in nursing homes or other long-term care facilities
  • children under 5 years of age
  • people who experience barriers in accessing health care
  • people who are at an increased risk of disease because of living conditions, such as overcrowding
  • Flu Vaccine And Coronavirus

    Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV)

    Flu vaccination is important because:

    • more people are likely to get flu this winter as fewer people will have built up natural immunity to it during the COVID-19 pandemic
    • if you get flu and COVID-19 at the same time, research shows you’re more likely to be seriously ill
    • getting vaccinated against flu and COVID-19 will provide protection for you and those around you for both these serious illnesses

    If you’ve had COVID-19, it’s safe to have the flu vaccine. It will still be effective at helping to prevent flu.

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    Flu Vaccine For People With Long

    The flu vaccine is offered free on the NHS to anyone with a serious long-term health condition, including:

    Talk to your doctor if you have a long-term condition that is not in one of these groups. They should offer you the flu vaccine if they think you’re at risk of serious problems if you get flu.

    What Are The Possible Side Effects Of The Flu Vaccine

    Both types of vaccine can cause mild side effects.

    • The flu shot usually is given as an injection in the upper arm or thigh . It contains killed flu virus and can’t cause someone to get the flu. But it can cause soreness, redness, or swelling at the injection site. Rarely, it might cause a low fever or body aches.
    • The nasal spray flu vaccine contains weakened live flu viruses. So it may cause mild symptoms, such as a runny nose, wheezing, sore throat, vomiting, or tiredness. Like the shot, it can sometimes cause a low fever or body aches.

    Sometimes, people faint after getting a shot, especially teens. It helps to sit or lie down for 15 minutes right after a shot to prevent this.

    If your child has any side effects, talk to your doctor about giving either acetaminophen or ibuprofen and to find out the right dose.

    A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad on the injection site may help ease soreness, as can moving or using the arm.

    Very rarely, the flu vaccine can cause a serious allergic reaction.

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    Route Site And Needle Size

    Administer pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Administer pneumococcal conjugate vaccines intramuscularly. The preferred site for PCV13 vaccination in infants and young children is the vastus lateralis muscle in the anterolateral thigh. The deltoid muscle is the preferred injection site for PCV13 vaccination in older children and PCV15 or PCV20 vaccination in adults. Use a needle length appropriate for the age and size of the person receiving the vaccine.

    What Is The Correct Dosage Of Vaccine

    Scientists may be getting closer to creating a universal flu vaccine

    The amount of inactivated vaccine that should be administered intramuscularly is based on the patients age and the vaccine product you are using.

    • For children 635 months of age, the correct dosage is:
    • 0.25 mL for Afluria Quadrivalent
    • 0.5 mL for Fluarix Quadrivalent
    • 0.25 mL or 0.5 mL for Fluzone Quadrivalent
    • 0.5 mL for FluLaval Quadrivalent
  • For persons 3 years of age and older, the correct dosage is 0.5 mL for most inactivated influenza vaccine products. Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent is for use in persons 65 years of age and older, and the correct dosage is 0.7 mL.
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    What Is The Appropriate Schedule For Children

    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for persons 6 months of age and older. Some children will need 2 doses of influenza vaccine in the same season. The following children will require 2 doses of influenza vaccine, administered at least 4 weeks apart, for the 20202021 season:

    • Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have never received seasonal influenza vaccine or for whom vaccination history is unknown
    • Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have not received at least 2 doses* of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2020

    The following children will require 1 dose of influenza vaccine for the 20202021 season:

    • Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have received at least 2 doses* of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2020
    • Children 9 years of age and older

    *Doses do not need to have been received during the same or consecutive influenza seasons.

    Why Should People Get Vaccinated Against Flu

    Influenza is a potentially serious disease that can lead to hospitalization and sometimes even death. Every flu season is different, and flu can affect people differently, but millions of people get flu every year, hundreds of thousands of people are hospitalized and thousands to tens of thousands of people die from flu-related causes every year. Flu can mean a few days of feeling bad and missing work or it can result in more serious illness. Complications of flu can include bacterial pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections and worsening of chronic medical conditions, such as congestive heart failure, asthma, or diabetes. An annual seasonal flu vaccine is the best way to help protect against flu. Vaccination has been shown to have many benefits including reducing the risk of flu illnesses, hospitalizations and even the risk of flu-related death in children. While some people who get a flu vaccine may still get sick, flu vaccination has been shown in several studies to reduce severity of illness.

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    Administration With Other Vaccines

    There are no contraindications to the co-administration of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines. You may administer DTaP, DT, Td, and Tdap with other indicated vaccines during the same visit. However, administer each vaccine using a separate syringe and, if possible, at a different anatomic site.

    There is a small increased risk of febrile seizures in children 6 through 23 months of age when giving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with DTaP according to a Vaccine Safety Datalink study. However, CDC made no changes in the recommendations you may give these vaccines at the same time.

    • CDC experts answer your clinical questions
    • Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Vaccine Information Statements

    Can My Child Get The Flu Vaccine At The Same Time As Another Childhood Vaccine Including The Covid

    Flu Vaccinations

    Yes. It is safe to get the seasonal flu vaccine at the same time as any childhood vaccine, including the COVID-19 vaccine. Many children are behind with their childhood vaccines or boosters because of the COVID-19 pandemic and getting the vaccines at the same time can help them catch up more quickly.

    For children 5 to 11 years old, it may be best to wait at least 14 days between the COVID-19 and other vaccines. The reason for this is that if any side effects happen, doctors will know which vaccine they are related to. But only space out vaccines if you are sure that no other vaccines your child needs will be given late.

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    The Deadline To Apply For The 2022/2023 Uiip Is July 10 2022

    Ontarios Universal Influenza Immunization Program provides publicly funded influenza vaccine for individuals aged 6 months or older who live, work or attend school in Ontario.

    Organizations interested in becoming a vaccine provider for the UIIP are required to complete an annual application process for approval to store, handle, and administer publicly funded influenza vaccine unless they are in receipt of other publicly funded vaccines .

    Please review the four-step application process and frequently asked questions below prior to applying.

    The ministry will respond to all inquiries and application forms submitted to within two business days.

    Who Should Not Get The Nasal Flu Vaccine

    • Children less than 2 years old .
    • Those who are pregnant and people who have weakened immune systems. It is a live virus vaccine.
    • People who have to take acetylsalicylic acid on a daily basis.
    • People with severe asthma who have been treated with steroids or had severe wheezing in the past 7 days .

    These people should get the injected vaccine.

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    Allergic Reactions To The Flu Vaccine

    It’s very rare for anyone to have a serious allergic reaction to the flu vaccine. If this does happen, it usually happens within minutes.

    The person who vaccinates you will be trained to deal with allergic reactions and treat them immediately.

    Anyone can report a suspected side effect of a vaccine through the Yellow Card Scheme.

    The Flu Shot Is Effective

    Already Moderately Severe, Flu Season in U.S. Could Get Worse

    The effectiveness of the vaccine varies from season to season. It depends on:

    • how well the vaccine matches with the circulating flu viruses
    • the health and age of the person getting the flu shot

    The viruses circulating in the population can sometimes change during the time it takes to produce a vaccine. When this happens during the flu season, the flu shot may not work as well as expected.

    It’s also important to remember that the flu shot protects against several different flu viruses each season. The seasonal flu shot can still provide protection against the remaining 2 or 3 viruses, even when theres:

    • a less-than-ideal match
    • lower effectiveness against one virus

    If you do get the flu, the flu shot may reduce the severity of flu-related complications.

    Getting your flu shot is still the most effective way to protect yourself against the flu and flu-related complications.

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    A Staff Member Inadvertently Administered The Wrong Dosage Of Influenza Vaccine How Do We Correct This

    If a smaller than recommended dose of any inactivated influenza product is inadvertently administered, additional vaccine should be given so that the patient receives a full dose. The amount of vaccine that should be administered is based on when the patient is available to be revaccinated. For example:

    • If a partial dose of an inactivated influenza vaccine product is administered and revaccination can occur on the same clinic day, the patient should receive a remaining volume to total the correct dosage. For example, if the correct dosage for the patient is 0.5 mL and they received only 0.25 mL, an additional 0.25 mL should be given if revaccination can occur on the same day.
    • If the patient cannot be revaccinated until the next day or later, a full dose of inactivated influenza vaccine should be administered as soon as the patient can return.
    • If a larger dose of influenza vaccine is inadvertently administered, count the dose as valid. Revaccination with additional vaccine is not needed.

    Giving an incorrect dose is considered a vaccine administration error. Healthcare personnel should take steps to determine how the error occurred and put strategies in place to prevent it from happening in the future.

    Route Site And Technique For Vaccine Administration

    Parenteral vaccines

    Appropriate site selection for vaccine administration is important to avoid inadvertent injection into a blood vessel or injury to a nerve. Vaccines containing adjuvants must be injected intramuscularly. If a vaccine containing an adjuvant is inadvertently injected subcutaneously or intradermally, increased inflammation, induration or granuloma formation may occur.

    Injection of a vaccine into an area where lymphatic circulation may be impaired could theoretically result in an impaired immune response due to impaired vaccine absorption, although there are no data to support this. Consider an alternative injection site if possible. There is no evidence or theoretical rationale for avoiding injection through a tattoo or superficial birthmark.

    Active immunizing agents should not be administered into the buttock . The gluteal muscle is an acceptable site for administration of Ig when large volumes are administered, and activation of the immune system is not required, but appropriate site selection of the gluteal muscle is necessary to avoid injury to the sciatic nerve.

    For additional information about administration of parenteral vaccines to people with bleeding disorders refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3.

    Intramuscular injections
    Subcutaneous injections
    Intradermal injections

    ID vaccine administration technique is product-specific and should be applied according to the vaccine’s product monograph or product leaflet.

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    Vaccine Dosing And Administration3

    • IIV may be given to patients older than 6 months. Patients between 6-35 months of age should be given 0.25 mL patients 3 years old or older should be given 0.5 mL. Give IM with a 22-25g, 1” needle.
    • Healthy people between 5 and 49 years old may receive 0.5mL LAIV .
    • Children who are younger than 9 years old and receiving a flu shot for the first time should receive 2 doses. For IIV, the doses should be separated by at least 4 weeks. For LAIV given to children 5-8 years old, the doses should be separated by at least 6 weeks.

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