Rapid Response To Pandemic Flu
The rapid development, production, and distribution of pandemic influenza vaccines could potentially save millions of lives during an influenza pandemic. Due to the short time frame between identification of a pandemic strain and need for vaccination, researchers are looking at novel technologies for vaccine production that could provide better “real-time” access and be produced more affordably, thereby increasing access for people living in low- and moderate-income countries, where an influenza pandemic may likely originate, such as live attenuated technology and recombinant technologies . As of July 2009, more than seventy known clinical trials have been completed or are ongoing for pandemic influenza vaccines. In September 2009, the FDA approved four vaccines against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus , and expected the initial vaccine lots to be available within the following month.
In January 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Audenz as a vaccine for the H5N1 flu virus. Audenz is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine. Audenz is approved for use in persons six months of age and older at increased risk of exposure to the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine.
Disclosure Of Potential Conflicts Of Interest
G.I. has previously participated at speakers bureaus and advisory board meetings sponsored by GSK, Pfizer and Sanofi Pasteur and has received research funding as principal investigator from Crucell Berna, GSK, Pfizer and sanofi pasteur. A.O. has not conflict of interest. A.C. has not conflict of interest. F.A. has previously participated at speakers bureaus and advisory board meetings sponsored by Novartis Vaccines, GSK and sanofi pasteur and has received research funding as principal investigator or co-investigator from Pfizer, Novartis Vaccines and sanofi pasteur. No other relationships/conditions/circumstances that present a potential conflict of interest exist.
Should I Repeat A Dose Of Injectable Influenza Vaccine Administered By An Incorrect Route
Yes if a formulation labeled for intramuscular injection is given by the subcutaneous or intradermal route, it should be repeated. The dose may be administered as soon as possible. There is no minimum interval required between the invalid dose and the repeat dose.
Administering vaccine by the wrong route is considered a vaccine administration error. Healthcare personnel should take steps to determine how the error occurred and put strategies in place to prevent it from happening in the future.
In addition, we encourage providers to report all vaccine administration errorseven those not associated with an adverse eventto the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System external icon. A discussion of strategies to prevent errors can be found in the Vaccine Administration chapter of Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases . Additional resources can be found on CDCs vaccine administration web page.
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What Other Drugs Will Affect Influenza Virus Injectable Vaccine
If you are using any of these medications, you may not be able to receive the vaccine, or may need to wait until the other treatments are finished:
- phenytoin, theophylline, or warfarin
- an oral, nasal, inhaled, or injectable steroid medicine
- medications to treat psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other autoimmune disorders–azathioprine, etanercept, leflunomide, and others or
- medicines to treat or prevent organ transplant rejection–basiliximab, cyclosporine, muromonab-CD3, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, tacrolimus.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect influenza virus vaccine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.
What Is The Recommended Site And Needle Length For Giving Influenza Vaccine To Adults By Intramuscular Injection
- Use a – to 1-inch needle for men and women who weigh less than 130 pounds . Insert the needle at a 90-degree angle and stretch the skin flat between thumb and forefinger.
- Use a 1-inch needle for men and women who weigh 130152 pounds .
- Use a 1- to 1½-inch needle for women who weigh 152200 pounds and men who weigh 152260 pounds .
- Use a 1½-inch needle for women who weigh more than 200 pounds and men who weigh more than 260 pounds .
CDC has vaccine administration resources for clinicians administering influenza vaccine, including a needle length and gauge chart and demonstration videos for intramuscular injection and intranasal administration.
Additional information on vaccine administration and safe injection practices can be found in the following resources:
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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Influenza Virus Injectable Vaccine
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. If you ever need to receive influenza virus vaccine in the future, you will need to tell your doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.
Influenza virus injectable vaccine will not cause you to become ill with the flu virus that it contains. However, you may have flu-like symptoms at any time during flu season that may be caused by other strains of influenza virus.
- a light-headed feeling, like you might pass out
- severe weakness or unusual feeling in your arms and legs
- high fever
- joint or muscle pain.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.
Who Should Not Receive The Flu Vaccine
Those who should avoid the flu vaccine include the following:
- People who have ever had a severe allergic reaction to influenza vaccine
- People under 65 years of age should not receive the high-dose flu shot.
- If you are sick with a fever when you go to get your flu shot, you should talk to your doctor or nurse about whether or not you should get your shot later. However, you can get a flu shot at the same time you have a respiratory illness without fever or if you have another mild illness.
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How To Administer A Flu Shot
This article was medically reviewed by Shari Forschen, NP, MA. Shari Forschen is a Registered Nurse at Sanford Health in North Dakota. She received her Family Nurse Practitioner Master’s from the University of North Dakota and has been a nurse since 2003.There are 17 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, several readers have written to tell us that this article was helpful to them, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 364,379 times.
Experts say that an annual flu shot is your best bet for preventing the flu, but it’s not 100% effective.XTrustworthy SourceMayo ClinicEducational website from one of the world’s leading hospitalsGo to source Typically, the annual flu shot will protect you against 3 or 4 strains of the virus that are expected to be prevalent that flu season. Research suggests that flu shots are usually given in the upper arm, and you may get a specific type recommended for your age group.XTrustworthy SourceCenters for Disease Control and PreventionMain public health institute for the US, run by the Dept. of Health and Human ServicesGo to source Fortunately, flu shots are fairly easy to administer.
Is The Flu Shot Painful
You may have some flu shot injection site pain that usually clears up in a few days, and this is normal. The flu shot is given as an intramuscular injection. The pain with a flu shot injected into muscle is usually minor and short-lived.
Ask your doctor if you can take some acetaminophen or ibuprofen after your shot if needed.
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What Is The Appropriate Schedule For Children
Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for persons 6 months of age and older. Some children will need 2 doses of influenza vaccine in the same season. The following children will require 2 doses of influenza vaccine, administered at least 4 weeks apart, for the 20202021 season:
- Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have never received seasonal influenza vaccine or for whom vaccination history is unknown
- Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have not received at least 2 doses* of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2020
The following children will require 1 dose of influenza vaccine for the 20202021 season:
- Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have received at least 2 doses* of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2020
- Children 9 years of age and older
*Doses do not need to have been received during the same or consecutive influenza seasons.
How Flumist Is Given
You should get FluMist according to your doctors or healthcare providers instructions.
FluMist comes as a nasal spray that a healthcare provider or pharmacist will spray into your nose. Youll likely receive your dose of FluMist at a doctors office or pharmacy.
When you receive your vaccine, you can breathe normally. You dont have to sniff. Your doctor or pharmacist will have you sit up straight. Then theyll quickly spray one squirt of vaccine into each nostril.
For children ages 2 to 8 years, two doses of FluMist may be recommended. Talk with your childs doctor about whether your child should receive one or two doses.
For more information on the number of doses of FluMist that you or your child should receive, see the FluMist dosage section below.
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I’m Healthy So I Don’t Need A Flu Shot
I’ll admit that this is an excuse I sometimes find myself using. I’m young and generally in good condition, so even if I come down with the flu, I’ll only feel bad for a day or so, right?
The CDC says that even healthy children and adults can risk hospitalization or severe complications from a bout of the flu. It’s one of those things you think will never happen to you until it does, so please join me in getting a flu shot this year to prevent this horrible possibility.
Can I File A Lawsuit If I Was Injected With A Flu Shot In The Wrong Spot
Intramuscular injections can can cause untold pain and suffering. For example, patients with an injured shoulder may no longer be able to work, causing hardship for them and their family.
Fortunately, victims of shoulder injury related to vaccine administration can get financial compensation by filing a petition through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Instead of filing a lawsuit, which costs more time and money, a claimant can seek restitution through the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program .
From 1988 to 2020, the program has paid vaccine injury victims over $4 billion in compensation. But you can only file a petition for damages if the VICP covers the vaccine that caused the injury. The flu shot is a covered vaccine.
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Is It Ok To Get Flumist If I Have Diabetes
You may not be able to get FluMist if you have diabetes, including both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. This is because diabetes can weaken your immune system.
FluMist is a live vaccine, which means it has live flu viruses in it that have been weakened so that they shouldnt infect you with the flu. If your immune system is healthy, it should be able to fight the flu viruses in the vaccine. But if your immune system is weakened due to diabetes, you may not be able to fight the viruses in the vaccine.
If you have diabetes, your doctor will probably recommend that you get a flu shot instead of FluMist. Flu shots arent live vaccines. For details, see Live vs. inactive vaccine in the FluMist vs. flu shot section above.
If you have questions about which flu vaccine is right for you, talk with your doctor.
Other Methods Of Manufacture
Methods of vaccine generation that bypass the need for eggs include the construction of influenza virus-like particles . VLP resemble viruses, but there is no need for inactivation, as they do not include viral coding elements, but merely present antigens in a similar manner to a virion. Some methods of producing VLP include cultures of Spodoptera frugiperdaSf9 insect cells and plant-based vaccine production . There is evidence that some VLPs elicit antibodies that recognize a broader panel of antigenically distinct viral isolates compared to other vaccines in the hemagglutination-inhibition assay .
A gene-based DNA vaccine, used to prime the immune system after boosting with an inactivated H5N1 vaccine, underwent clinical trials in 2011.
On November 20, 2012, Novartis received FDA approval for the first cell-culture vaccine. In 2013, the recombinant influenza vaccine, Flublok, was approved for use in the United States.
On September 17, 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for Supemtek, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine . The applicant for this medicinal product is Sanofi Pasteur. Supemtek was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2020.
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Signs Of A More Serious Reaction
“A very small percentage of people can have a true allergic reaction to the vaccine, including chest tightness, difficulty breathing, wheezing, facial or throat swelling and redness of the eyes,” Teague says. If you experience these symptoms, you should seek medical attention immediately. Teague says severe allergic reactions usually happen within a few hours of getting the flu shot.
Signs of a severe allergic reaction, according to the CDC, can include:
- Difficulty breathing
- Swelling around the eyes or lips
- A fast heartbeat or dizziness
Another possible reaction is an infection where the shot was administered. “Patients can also develop an infection at the injection site, which is manifested as worsening redness, swelling, warmth and tenderness,” Teague says. You should also seek immediate medical attention for this type of reaction.
The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.
Vaccine Dosing And Administration
- IIV may be given to patients older than 6 months. Patients between 6-35 months of age should be given 0.25 mL patients 3 years old or older should be given 0.5 mL. Give IM with a 22-25g, > 1” needle.
- Healthy people between 5 and 49 years old may receive 0.5mL LAIV .
- Children who are younger than 9 years old and receiving a flu shot for the first time should receive 2 doses. For IIV, the doses should be separated by at least 4 weeks. For LAIV given to children 5-8 years old, the doses should be separated by at least 6 weeks.
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Flumist And Other Medications
Below are some of the medications that can interact with FluMist. This section doesnt contain all drugs that may interact with FluMist.
Before taking FluMist, talk with your doctor and pharmacist. Tell them about all prescription, over-the-counter, and other drugs you take. Also tell them about any vitamins, herbs, and supplements you use. Sharing this information can help you avoid potential interactions.
If you have questions about drug interactions that may affect you, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
FluMist and aspirin
Children ages 2 through 17 years who are taking aspirin or medication that has aspirin in it shouldnt get the FluMist vaccine.
FluMist is a live vaccine. This means that FluMist has live flu viruses in it that have been changed so that they shouldnt infect your child with the flu. If your childs immune system is healthy, their body should be able to fight the flu viruses in the vaccine. But if your child has an infection, their immune system may be too weak to fight the vaccines flu viruses.
If your child takes aspirin and is infected with the flu, theres a possible risk of Reyes syndrome. This is a rare but very serious disease that affects the brain and liver. Its not known exactly what causes Reyes syndrome. However, children who are recovering from an infection are usually at the highest risk for Reyes syndrome. And there may be a link between children who take aspirin for a viral infection and developing Reyes syndrome.
- baloxavir marboxil
What Is Influenza Virus Vaccine
Influenza virus is a serious disease caused by a virus. Influenza virus can spread from one person to another through small droplets of saliva that are expelled into the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also be passed through contact with objects the infected person has touched, such as a door handle or other surfaces.
Influenza virus vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by influenza virus. The vaccine is redeveloped each year to contain specific strains of inactivated flu virus that are recommended by public health officials for that year.
The injectable influenza virus vaccine is a “killed virus” vaccine. Influenza virus vaccine is also available in a nasal spray form, which is a “live virus” vaccine.
Influenza virus vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which helps your body to develop immunity to the disease. Influenza virus vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.
Influenza virus vaccine is for use in adults and children who are at least 6 months old.
Becoming infected with influenza is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. Influenza causes thousands of deaths each year, and hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
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