How Cdc Monitors Vaccine Safety
CDC and FDA monitor the safety of vaccines after they are approved or authorized. If a problem is found with a vaccine, CDC and FDA will inform health officials, health care providers, and the public.
CDC uses 3 systems to monitor vaccine safety:
- The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System : an early warning system, co-managed by CDC and FDA, to monitor for potential vaccine safety problems. Anyone can report possible vaccine side effects to VAERS.
- The Vaccine Safety Datalink : a collaboration between CDC and 9 health care organizations that conducts vaccine safety monitoring and research.
- The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project: a partnership between CDC and several medical research centers that provides expert consultation and conducts clinical research on vaccine-associated health risks.
Should I Get Two Flu Shots This Year
The short answer is no.
Flu shot recommendations remain the same, and unless you are under nine years old and have never gotten a flu shot before, a second dose is not recommended, says Dr. Kelly Moore, associate director for immunization education at the Immunization Action Coalition.
Children ages six months through eight years who have never been vaccinated against the flu benefit from two doses the first season they get the vaccine, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.
“If your immune system has never seen influenza before and you’re getting the vaccine for the first time, your immune system doesn’t quite know what to do with that,” Dr. Moore tells CNBC Make It. “It learns, but it doesn’t learn quite well enough, and it needs that second dose to really mount a protective response.”
However, past the age of eight, just one yearly dose will do.
“When you’re older and you’ve had flu vaccines before, or you’ve had influenza before, then your immune system responds quite quickly to one dose of vaccine,” Dr. Moore explains. “We don’t see a noticeable benefit from getting multiple doses of the vaccine.
Other vaccines such as measles, chickenpox and hepatitis require two doses, which can be confusing, Moore adds.
“People may think, ‘If one is good, two must be better,’ but in reality, that’s not how our immune system works,” she says. “And while that is the case for certain vaccines and certain viruses, it’s not the case for the influenza vaccine.”
Two Vaccines One Visit
If youre planning to get a COVID-19 vaccine or booster shot sometime soon and the thought of going to the pharmacy twice sounds like an inconvenience, you wont actually have to make two trips: You can get a flu shot and a COVID-19 vaccine at the same time, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
When people get two vaccinations at the same time, they usually get one vaccination in each arm, says internal medicine specialist Laura Dutu, M.D.Because the typical side effects that people experience from both vaccines are similar, people should expect their side effects to resemble what they have had after previous flu or COVID-19 vaccines. They should not be more intense for most people.
Read Also: Severe Daytime Cold And Flu Red Pill
Can I Have The Flu Vaccine If I Take Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a type of medicine used to treat some cancers, including metastatic melanoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, non-small celllung cancer and other solid organ tumours. Checkpoint inhibitors include ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab.
People taking checkpoint inhibitors may have a higher risk of immune-related side effects following influenza vaccination. Talk to your oncologist about the risks and benefits of the flu shot.
For more information on the flu vaccine, go to the Department of Health website or call the National Immunisation Hotline on 1800 671 811.
Which Vaccine Is Right For You
Since 2009, a higher-dose flu vaccine called Fluzone High-Dose has been available for adults 65 and over. Like the regular-dose flu vaccine, it contains the three flu strains experts believe will be most prevalent in the upcoming flu season. But it also contains four times the usual amount of immune-stimulating antigens against the virus.
Is it worth getting the high-dose vaccine if you’re over 65? “I think it’s an area of much debate and discussion,” Dr. Choi says. While some studies have found the high-dose vaccine stimulates a higher immune system response in the lab, it’s not yet clear whether that translates into better protection against the flu in the real world.
The high-dose vaccine also comes with some downsides worth considering: more pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site, as well as bodywide side effects like muscle pain, headache, and fever. Most of these effects are mild and short-lived.
There are currently no official recommendations advising seniors to switch to the high-dose flu vaccine. Dr. Choi recommends weighing the pros and cons with your doctor to help you decide.
Also Check: What To Take To Avoid Keto Flu
Nonsimultaneous Vaccination Is Ok Too
Then there is nonsimultaneous vaccine administration, which is when a prior vaccine was given more than one full day ago. This is not a problem either.
However, there are some exceptions such as with non-live vaccines Menactra and DTaPagain they apply risk groups such as patients with asplenia, HIV infection or complement component deficiency.
Most injectable live vaccine pairs that are not given on the same day need to be separated by 28 days, which includes the live, attenuated influenza vaccine. For yellow fever and another live vaccine, administration should be separated by 30 days.
A Closer Look At The Safety Data
Findings from vaccine safety monitoring systems and scientific studies have shown that the flu vaccines have an excellent safety profile. Hundreds of millions of Americans have safely received flu vaccines for more than 50 years and the body of scientific evidence overwhelmingly supports their safety.
The safety of flu vaccines is monitored by CDC and FDA. Certain safety outcomes are commonly evaluated, including Guillain-Barré Syndrome, maternal and infant safety, and febrile seizures.
The data on an association between seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine and GBS have been variable from season-to-season. When there has been an increased risk, it has been in the range of 1-2 additional GBS cases per million flu vaccine doses administered. The data also indicate that a person is more likely to get GBS after flu disease than after getting a flu vaccine. Learn more about Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
Maternal and Infant Safety
Pregnant women are considered at high risk for developing serious complications from flu. Several studies have shown that influenza vaccination can protect pregnant women during and after pregnancy and protect the baby from influenza infection for several months after birth. More information on flu vaccine effectiveness in pregnant women and their babies.
Read Also: Where Can I Get A Flu Shot With Tricare
Flu Season Can Extend To Spring
Flu season typically peaks December to February, but the virus can circulate through May.
Flu can be especially severe or deadly to elderly adults, very young children, pregnant women and people with compromised immune systems. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all people age 6 months and older be vaccinated.
The flu shot cant give you the flu. But side effects can make you feel mildly ill for a short time. The most common side effects from a flu shot are achiness, low-grade fever and soreness where the shot was given.
Many experts are concerned about a twindemic of flu cases amid a surge of infections and hospitalizations from the highly contagious COVID-19 Delta variant.
The Delta variant is so contagious, anyone unvaccinated is likely to get sick and is at risk for severe illness, Dr. Armitage says. Influenza is not as serious, but can also be fatal in higher risk patients.
Can Be Given With Other Vaccines
COVID-19 vaccines may be administered without regard to timing of other vaccines. This means COVID-19 vaccines can be co-administered with the influenza vaccine during the same visit. Giving all vaccines for which a person is eligible at the same visit is a best practice as it increases the probability people will be up to date on recommended vaccines.
But there are a few rare exceptions to the allowance of simultaneous vaccination. These instances generally involve children who have conditions such as asplenia, complement component deficiency or HIV infection. This is limited to PCV13 and Menactra vaccines, according to the CDC COCA webinar.
Recommended Reading: Medicine For Flu With High Blood Pressure
Do Children Adults Pregnant Women And The Elderly Need A Different Vaccine
Generally, children, adults and pregnant women get the same vaccine to protect them against the flu. However, if your child is under 9 years old and has not been vaccinated before, they will need to get 2 doses of the vaccine, at least 4 weeks apart, in their first year.
In 2018, 2 new flu vaccines became available for people aged 65 years and over. These vaccines are not available for people younger than 65.
Can Kids Get A Covid
My family is getting the flu vaccine next week, and Im wondering if my kids can get a COVID-19 vaccine then too. Is that safe? -Monica
All kids 6 months of age and older should get the flu vaccine as soon as it is available in their communities. All kids 5 years and older should get a COVID-19 vaccine, and teens 16 and older should also get a booster dose.
When COVID-19 vaccines first became available, experts had suggested that people not get other vaccines at the same time. Instead, they recommended getting them either 2 weeks before or after the COVID-19 vaccine. But now that millions of people have gotten a COVID-19 vaccine , its clear that theyre safe and effective when given with other vaccines.
Getting both vaccines now can mean fewer trips to the doctor and feeling any vaccine-related side effects only once. Also:
- The upcoming 2021-2022 flu season might be tougher than the last season because people are back at work and school. So its best not to put off getting the flu vaccine.
- Many kids are behind on their regular vaccinations due to missed checkups during the pandemic. Getting more than one vaccine per visit lets them catch up on vaccinations.
Can You Get Covid Twice What We Know About Coronavirus Reinfection
Recovering from the coronavirus gives you some immunity, but experts aren’t sure how long it lasts.
Confirming COVID-19 reinfection is difficult because it requires genetic testing of test samples. Most labs are ill-equipped.
Since the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic, experts have grappled with the question of how much immunity someone has once they’ve been sick with COVID-19 and whether that’ll protect them in the future. While the coronavirus continues to mutate and work its way around the globe, more people have recovered from COVID-19 and may be wondering what kind of immunity that gives them to ward off a second infection, and whether they still need a vaccine. The answer to that second question is yes.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, every person eligible should get a COVID-19 vaccine, including those who’ve been sick with the coronavirus and recovered. This is because studies have shown that vaccination provides a strong boost in immunity to those who’ve recovered from COVID-19, and vaccination is a much safer way to get immunity from the coronavirus than getting infected with COVID-19.
Our Health & Wellness newsletter puts the best products, updates and advice in your inbox.
Can A Flu Shot Make You Get Sick
It isnt out of the ordinary to react to the flu shot, as its simply a sign that your immune system getting to work protecting you. Common responses include a sore arm, headache, nausea, muscle aches or a mild fever. The vaccine itself is adapted every year, Dr. Ford says. So its very hard to predict, from one year to the next, if youre going to have a mild reaction, no reaction or a more problematic reaction.
However, if you do get sick after getting a flu shot, its not because of the vaccine. The only direct reactions to the shot are going to happen within the first 24 to 48 hours, Dr. Ford affirms. As mentioned before, if you get sick after that, people might think its related to getting the flu shot. But its just a coincidence.
Read Also: Can I Take Ibuprofen After Flu Shot
Research Backs Up Recommendation
British researchers have studied the effectiveness of administering COVID-19 and flu vaccines at the same time. They gave 340 adults aged 18 and older COVID-19 vaccines and flu shots and also gave 339 adults COVID-19 vaccines and placebo injections. The preprint study, which is not yet peer-reviewed, found that when people received flu and COVID-19 vaccines at the same time, it caused no health or safety concerns.
The study also found that administering both vaccines at the same time didnt diminish the bodys immune response to either virus. Additionally, pregnant women, older adults and people with severe health conditions people who are ideal candidates for flu shots and COVID-19 vaccines were included within the study, so the research should help to reassure people in those groups that getting simultaneous vaccinations is safe and effective.
Researchers have known for some time that when people receive two vaccinations at once, the body can identify each vaccine without confusion and develop an immune response to each, says Dr. Dutu. Also say that people should get both vaccines this flu season.
The Cdc Website Says Clean And Disinfect Surfaces And Objects That May Be Contaminated With Germs Like The Flu What Are The Best Practices
First of all, washing your hands will keep everything cleaner, Lazarte said. Most commercial disinfectants that you see do kill the flu virus. If you want to be super secure, nothing beats bleach.
The CDC draws a distinction between cleaning and disinfecting. Cleaning removes germs by using soap and water. It wont necessarily kill germs, but removing them lowers their numbers and helps prevent them from spreading illness.
Disinfecting kills germs on surfaces, the CDC says. Its not necessarily going to clean dirty surfaces or remove germs, so its meant to be done after cleaning.
To clean a surface, use a general household cleaner. Then rinse with water and follow it up with an EPA-registered disinfectant to kill germs.
If you dont have a disinfectant handy, a bleach solution can also be used to kill germs. Add 1 tablespoon of bleach to 4 cups of water, or a quarter-cup of bleach to a gallon of water. Then apply the bleach solution to the surface you want to disinfect with a cloth for three to five minutes, and rinse it off with water.
You can also use disinfectant wipes, or household products that can double as a cleaner and a disinfectant. Just make sure you follow the instructions on the label, the CDC recommends.
Don’t Miss: How To Get A Flu Shot At Cvs
When The Flu Vaccine Starts Working
Once you receive your flu shot, it takes 2 weeks for your body to develop antibodies that provide protection.
Its important to remember that during this period, youre still vulnerable to becoming ill with the flu.
During that time, you should be extra careful to:
- practice good hygiene
- avoid touching your nose or mouth whenever possible
- avoid crowds if flu is circulating in your community
These precautions are exponentially more important while COVID-19 is still a factor. You can develop the flu along with other respiratory infections, so protecting yourself and others is important.
Can I Get The Flu Twice
Flu is a nasty illness to catch. In order to have a chance to avoid it you can get an intradermal flu shot. This famed flu shot has the right stimulants for you body to augment your protections against the flu. Hence, people who had received it are free to socialize even during the season. But unknown to many, you could catch flu more than once. And there could be many various reasons why.
Don’t Miss: Can Stress Cause Flu Symptoms
What Is An Enhanced Influenza Vaccine
An enhanced flu vaccine is one that contains an adjuvant, an ingredient designed to increase the immune-system response to the vaccine. People aged 65 and older are often given an enhanced influenza vaccine because since the immune system weakens with age they dont respond as well to the flu vaccine as healthy, younger adults.
Fluad Quad is an enhanced flu vaccine recommended for people aged 65 and over in Australia.
Why Is It Especially Important To Get A Flu Shot This Year
Until a Covid-19 vaccine is approved, flu vaccinations are among the most effective ways to ensure that hospitals can weather the pandemic, according to Dr. Amesh Adalja, senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security.
The flu sends hundreds of thousands of Americans to the hospital and causes tens of thousands of deaths annually. Even during a normal season, hospitals often become inundated with patients, Dr. Adalja says.
“Both the flu and the coronavirus are going to be competing for the same emergency department beds, the same hospital beds, the same ICU beds, the same mechanical ventilators, the same personal protective equipment and even the same diagnostic test ,” Dr. Adalja tells CNBC Make It. “The more we can decrease the burden of influenza, the more room we’ll have to take care of Covid-19 patients.”
From NBC News and Shop TODAY: