How Can I Tell If I Have The Flu Covid
It can be challenging to distinguish between these conditions because they have many overlapping symptoms. For instance, both the flu and Covid-19 can cause fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headache, vomiting and diarrhea. Therefore, the only way to distinguish reliably between the two illnesses is to get tested, Dr. Gandhi said.
There are now combined tests available at some doctors offices that can distinguish between flu, SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory syncytial virus , a common and typically mild respiratory virus that can cause more serious symptoms in infants and older adults. Most of these tests are not covered by health insurance, though, Dr. Fradin said. They can run around $250, although costs may vary, she said.
Some cold and allergy symptoms might overlap with those from the flu or Covid-19 , but symptoms of colds and allergies are typically more mild, and are usually limited to the nose, throat and chest. In kids, however, Covid-19 can present a lot like a cold. So it may be wise for kids with cold symptoms to get a Covid-19 test, Dr. Fradin said.
Why Is Porcine Gelatine Used In Vaccines
Porcine gelatine is used in vaccines as a stabiliser to ensure that the vaccine remains safe and effective during storage. Vaccine manufacturers normally test a wide range of stabilisers and choose one that is stable, good quality, and available in sufficient volume. Unlike the gelatine used in foods, the product used in vaccines is highly purified and broken down into very small molecules called peptides.
Who Should Not Get The Nasal Flu Vaccine
- have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the flu vaccine or any of its ingredients
- have severe asthma or if they have been wheezy or needed their inhaler more than usual in the 3 days before the vaccination
- are taking medicines called salicylates, which include aspirin
- have taken influenza antiviral medication within the previous 48 hours
- have a severely weakened immune system because of certain medical conditions or treatments
- are living with someone who has a severely weakened immune system – for example, a person who has to live in insolation in the months following a bone marrow transplant
- have a condition which means they have a leak of cerebrospinal fluid – the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
- have severe neutropoenia , except for those with primary autoimmune neutropenia
- are on combination checkpoint inhibitors, for example ipilumumab plus nivolumab, which are used to treat cancer
- are pregnant
- have a cranial cerebrospinal fluid leak
Your child may not be able to have the nasal flu vaccine if they have had a cochlear implant. Ask your child’s hearing specialist if your child can have the nasal flu vaccine.
Get specialist advice if your child needs regular oral steroids or they have previously needed ICU care for asthma.
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Are All Influenza Vaccines The Same
While all influenza vaccines will protect against the same 4 flu viruses, different influenza vaccines are manufactured differently and different preparations have different indications as licensed by the FDA. In particular, each vaccine is licensed for a specific age range. All recipients should receive a vaccine that is appropriate for their age. In addition, LAIV is not recommended for use in some populations.
People with egg allergies can receive any licensed, recommended age-appropriate influenza vaccine that is otherwise appropriate. People who have a history of severe egg allergy should be vaccinated in a medical setting, supervised by a health care provider who is able to recognize and manage severe allergic reactions. Two completely egg-free flu vaccine options are available: quadrivalent recombinant vaccine and quadrivalent cell-based vaccine.
How Much Influenza Vaccine Is Projected To Be Available For The 2021
Flu vaccine is produced by private manufacturers, so supply depends on manufacturers. Vaccine manufacturers have projected that they will supply the United States with as many as 188 million to 200 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2021-2022 season. These projections may change as the season progresses. All flu vaccines for the 2021-2022 season will be quadrivalent . Most will be thimerosal-free or thimerosal-reduced vaccine and about 18% of flu vaccines will be egg-free.
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How The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine Is Given
The vaccine is given as a spray squirted up each nostril. It’s quick and painless.
The vaccine will still work even if your child gets a runny nose, sneezes or blows their nose.
Your child will be given 2 doses if they’re under 9 years old and have both:
- a long-term health condition that means they’re more at risk from flu
- never had a flu vaccine before
These doses are given 4 weeks apart.
What If I Belong To A Religion Or Faith That Does Not Eat Products Derived From Pigs
We recognise that there is still some uncertainty amongst some groups about the acceptability of the nasal spray.
Some faith groups accept the use of porcine gelatine in medical products as it has been highly purified to the extent that molecules of actual porcine are no longer present in the final preparation.
We recognise that some people may not accept the use of porcine gelatine in medical products. If this is the case, you should discuss your options with your nurse or doctor.
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Pork Gelatine In Vaccines
Gelatine derived from pigs is used as a stabilising agent in some vaccines.
Stabilisers are added to vaccines to help protect them from the effects of heat or freeze-drying, and also help maintain the shelf life of the vaccine.
The only vaccines containing gelatine in the UK routine vaccination schedule are the shingles vaccine, the childrens nasal flu vaccine and 1 of the 2 types of MMR vaccine.
There have been a small number of allergic reactions to vaccines containing gelatine.
People with a known allergy to gelatine are advised to consult their doctor before receiving a vaccine that contains it.
Some religious groups, such as Muslims and Jews, may be concerned about using vaccines containing gelatine from pigs.
But many faith group leaders have stated the use of gelatine in vaccines is acceptable and does not break any religious rules.
: The NHS
Alternatives To These Vaccines
- MMR: in the UK we have 2 types of MMR vaccine MMR VaxPro® and Priorix®. Priorix® does not contain gelatine and is as safe and effective as MMR VaxPro®
- Shingles: Zostavax® is the only shingles vaccine currently available in the UK
- Fluenz® Tetra: for healthy children, there is no equivalent vaccine. There are injectable flu vaccines that do not contain pork gelatine, but these are expected to be less effective than Fluenz® Tetra in children. They may also do less to reduce the spread of flu in the community. These vaccines are only recommended as part of the programme for children and adults who are at high risk of the complications of flu
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Can The Flu Shot Prevent Covid
It is not designed to do so, and we have no solid evidence that it does. But some recent, yet preliminary and limited, studies suggest that it could. One study published on a preprint server in September that has not yet been peer reviewed found that of nearly 18,000 employees at a Dutch hospital, those who received a previous flu vaccine were 37 to 49 percent less likely to get sick with Covid-19 during the first and second coronavirus waves, respectively,than those who didnt get the flu shot.
Researchers have been speculating that the flu vaccine might spark a broad immune response that could help prevent other infections, including Covid-19. And while there is growing interest in this theory, and other studies have found similar associations, its hard to know whether these effects are causal or just coincidental, Dr. Fradin said.
The best way to prevent Covid-19,she added,is to get a Covid-19 vaccine.
How Well Do Our Flu Vaccines Work
Because the flu virus changes so rapidly, and most flu vaccines are grown slowly and somewhat imprecisely in chicken eggs, the strains we get vaccinated against are sometimes not what our bodies end up encountering, Dr. Palese said. And because of that, flu vaccines are not as effective as some other vaccines that protect against viral illnesses. During the 2019-2020 flu season, for instance, those who received the flu vaccine were only 39 percent less likely than people who didnt receive the vaccine to develop influenza. Two doses of the Moderna and Pfizer Covid-19 vaccines, on the other hand, reduce symptomatic illness from Covid-19 by more than 90 percent, and two doses of the measles vaccine provide 97 percent protection.
That being said, Dr. Palese added, the best thing you can do to protect yourself from the flu is to get a vaccine. Thats the only thing that really makes a difference.
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Strains Of The Flu Virus
Flu viruses change frequently, so the strains of the flu virus in the vaccine do as well.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , flu shot composition is decided each year with the help of over 144 influenza centers in over 114 countries.
Laboratories at each center collect influenza surveillance data throughout the year and send virus samples to the World Health Organization Collaborating Centers for Reference and Research on Influenza. The FDA makes the final determination on which strains to target in the U.S.
In the flu shot, the viruses are dead, so you cant get the flu from the vaccine. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened version of the virus, so theyre also safe.
Type Of Vaccine For Children
Children will get a nasal spray vaccine. It’s called the Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine nasal spray vaccine. It’s known by the brand name Fluenz Tetra and manufactured by AstraZeneca AB.
This flu vaccine is approved for children aged 2 to 17 years.
If your child has been told they cannot have the nasal flu vaccine, talk to your GP or pharmacist about them getting the vaccine as an injection.
If your child is under 2 years and at risk of complications from flu, they can get a different type of flu vaccine by injection instead of the nasal spray.
Most children only need 1 dose of the vaccine each season. Some children aged 2 to 8 years with chronic health conditions may need 2 doses if they have never had the flu vaccine before. Your GP or pharmacist will know if they need 2 doses. The doses are given 4 weeks apart.
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Flu Vaccine Latex Allergy Patient Alert
FLUAD Adjuvanted Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine 0.5ml single-dose prefilled needle-less syringes poses a risk of latex exposure. Other quadrivalent vaccines do not contain latex, but it is important to always check with your healthcare provider about the potential for latex exposure before receiving any vaccine.
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Vaccines Which Contain Porcine Gelatine
In the UK routine immunisation programme, there are 3 vaccines that contain porcine gelatine:
- Fluenz® Tetra®, the nasal spray vaccine that protects children against flu
- MMR VaxPro®, a vaccine that protects against measles, mumps and rubella
- Zostavax®, the vaccine that protects older adults against shingles
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Where Can I Find Information About Vaccine Supply
Information about vaccine supply is available here.
Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
- Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
- CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance on other federal or private website.
Who Should And Who Should Not Get A Flu Vaccine
On June 30, 2022, CDC announced that Director Rochelle P. Walensky adopted the Decision memo approving the ACIP vote for a preferential recommendation for the use of higher dose or adjuvanted flu vaccines over standard-dose unadjuvanted flu vaccines for adults 65 years and older. CDCs full recommendations for the use of flu vaccines during 2022-2023 will appear in a forthcoming Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Edits to this page are also forthcoming. More information can be found online: CDC Director Adopts Preference for Specific Flu Vaccines for Seniors
Everyone 6 months of age and older should get an influenza vaccine every season, with rare exceptions. For the 2021-2022 flu season, three main types of influenza vaccines will be available. Two kindsthe inactivated influenza vaccines and the recombinant influenza vaccine are injectable . The third type, the live attenuated influenza vaccine , is given by nasal spray. Different influenza vaccines are approved for different age groups. Some people should not get some types of influenza vaccines, and some people should not receive influenza vaccines at all . Everyone who is vaccinated should receive a vaccine that is appropriate for their age and health status. There is no preference for any one vaccine over another.
All persons aged 6 months of age and older are recommended for annual flu vaccination, with rare exception.
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Flu Vaccine Ingredients: The Strains
Every year, vaccine developers take virus samples from labs across the world and mix and match them. This years vaccine relies on four viruses this is called a quadrivalent vaccine. The four viruses in the vaccine are somewhat different for the three different types of flu vaccines, which are egg-based , recombinant, and egg-free.
Those viruses are
First, lets break down the terminology: A refers to the type of influenza that infects birds, humans, pigs, horses, seals, and dogs H#N# refers to the different proteins found in the outer shell of the virus pdm is short for pandemic and 09 is the year of said pandemic .
This years Apdm09 component is different for flu vaccines that are egg-based compared to those that are cell-based and recombinant-based. For egg-based vaccines, the component changed from an A/Guangdong-Maonan/SWL1536/2019 pdm09-like virus to an A/Victoria/2570/2019pdm09-like virus. That means a flu strain akin to the one seen in the 2009 pandemic that was created in 2019 in a lab in Victoria is replacing the strain created in 2019 in the Maonan district of Guangdong.
For cell-based and recombinant vaccines, the component changed from an A/Hawaii/70/2019 pdm09-like virus to an A/Wisconsin/588/2019 pdm09-like virus.
The second component is a variant of the 2009 H1N1 swine flu. H3N2 was first found in pigs in 2010, then in humans in 2011. The biggest human outbreak was in 2012 with some 309 reported cases.
Other Recommendations For Administering Vaccines In Latex
- Use ampules of medications that do not contain latex when the content is known .
- Use a glass syringe. Otherwise, inject immediately after withdrawal.
- Wear latex free gloves when administering vaccinations.
- Avoid applying bandages or plasters if content is unknown.
- Look for the following caution on medical products but be aware that not all latex containing products will be labelled, Caution: This Product Contains Natural Rubber Latex Which May Cause Allergic Reactions.
- Do you have spina bifida?
- Have you had several surgeries throughout your life?
- Do you have Allergies to avocados, bananas, kiwis, chestnuts or apples?
- Do your lips swell when you blow up a balloon?
- Do you have a history of rashes, itching, hives, eye irritation, runny nose or asthmatic symptoms after handling gloves, balloons, condoms, or other latex items?
- Is your mouth itchy after dental work?
- Do you have frequent contact with natural rubber products either at home or work?
- Have you ever had an anaphylaxis of unknown origin?
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What Are The Possible Benefits Of Recombinant Flu Vaccines
Recombinant flu vaccine is one of the three vaccines that are preferentially recommended for people 65 years and older because a review of existing studies suggested that, in this age group, these vaccines are potentially more effective than standard dose unadjuvanted flu vaccines. Other possible benefits of recombinant vaccine include that this vaccine technology is not dependent on an egg supply so the manufacturing process might be faster than that of egg-based vaccines in the event of a pandemic or shortage of the eggs needed to grow influenza viruses. This process is not limited by the selection of vaccine viruses that are adapted for growth in eggs. It also avoids mutations that can occur when viruses are grown in eggs, which can sometimes affect how well the finished vaccine works.
What Are The Side Effects Of The Flu Vaccine
Soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site, as well as headache, fever, nausea, muscle aches and fatigue can occur with the shot. The nasal spray vaccine in kids can cause runny nose, wheezing, headache, vomiting, muscle aches, low-grade fever and sore throat. Side effects of the nasal spray for adults may include runny nose, headache and cough.
Rarely, life-threatening allergic reactions can occur. Symptoms, which usually arise within a few hours after vaccination, may include breathing problems, hoarseness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, rapid heartbeat or dizziness.
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Important Safety Information Openclose
- You should not get FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT if you have a severe allergy to eggs or to any inactive ingredient in the vaccine have ever had a life-threatening reaction to influenza vaccinations or are 2 through 17 years old and take aspirin or medicines containing aspirin children or adolescents should not be given aspirin for 4 weeks after getting FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT unless your healthcare provider tells you otherwise
- Children under 2 years old have an increased risk of wheezing after getting FLUMIST QUADRIVALENT
- Tell your healthcare provider if you or your child are currently wheezing have a history of wheezing if under 5 years old have had Guillain-Barré syndrome have a weakened immune system or live with someone who has a severely weakened immune system have problems with your heart, kidneys, or lungs have diabetes are pregnant or nursing or are taking a medication used to treat influenza like Tamiflu®*, Relenza®*, amantadine, or rimantadine
- The most common side effects are runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, and fever over 100°F