What Is Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
CDC recommends everyone 6 months of age and older get vaccinated every flu season. Children 6 months through 8 years of age may need 2 doses during a single flu season. Everyone else needs only 1 dose each flu season.
Live, attenuated influenza vaccine is a nasal spray vaccine that may be given to nonpregnant people 2 through 49 years of age.
It takes about 2 weeks for protection to develop after vaccination.
There are many flu viruses, and they are always changing. Each year a new flu vaccine is made to protect against three or four viruses that are likely to cause disease in the upcoming flu season. Even when the vaccine doesn’t exactly match these viruses, it may still provide some protection.
Influenza vaccine does not cause flu.
Influenza vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines.
Fact Check: Nasal Flu Vaccine Does Not Spread Flu
4 Min Read
Some social media posts have made the false claim that the nasal flu vaccine, also known as flu mist, spreads the flu.
3,000,000+ Children in the UK are due to get the Flu Mist, the post reads.
Dont forget, its live, you can catch it from them and guess what, so can grandma! This is a LIVE VIRUS they spray into your childs nose.
Flu Mist spreads Flu. This is how they keep the Pharmaceutical companies in business.
According to Britain’s National Health Service, the vaccine for children is a spray that contains live flu viruses that have been weakened so as to stimulate the immune system while not causing disease .
The spray should not, however, be given to children who have a severely weakened immune system, have certain allergies or severe asthma.
The Vaccine Knowledge Project, a website managed by the Oxford Vaccine Group, an academic research group within the University of Oxford, says there is no evidence that healthy unvaccinated people can catch the flu from a vaccinated person .
It says that for few days after vaccination, children can shed the virus when they cough or sneeze. However, it adds that the weakened virus does not spread as easily as the natural flu virus that circulates within the population, and it can not grow inside the body. It also advises that the amount of virus shed is normally too low to infect others, and that the virus does not survive for long outside the body.
Flu Vaccine And Cancer Treatment
Cancer or its treatment can lower your resistance to infection and make you more likely to catch flu. The flu vaccination makes it less likely that you will catch flu.
Flu is an infection caused by a virus. It is very infectious. You mainly catch it from coughs and sneezes of people who have the virus. The symptoms of flu often come on quickly and include:
- a high temperature
- extreme tiredness
Anyone who has flu feels quite unwell. But most healthy people recover within a few days as their immune system gets rid of the virus. Occasionally people develop complications, such as severe chest infections. These are serious illnesses which can need hospital treatment. A small number of people die due to complications.
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Where Your Child Gets The Vaccine
GPs will offer the vaccine to pre-school children. Ask the doctor’s surgery about vaccination for your child.
Primary school children and those up to Year 12 in secondary school will be offered the vaccine in school.
To allow your child to be vaccinated, you need to sign and return a consent form to the school.
If your child is absent or they need a second dose of the vaccine, the school will ask you to contact your child’s GP.
Why Is Annual Flu Vaccine So Important
Flu viruses can change every year. Flu vaccine is updated to include protection against the strains of flu believed most likely to make people sick that year. Flu virus is easily spread from person to person and flu is a very serious illness. Millions of people get sick, and thousands die, from flu illness each and every year. Flu vaccine is the best protection we have and has been used safely and effectively for over 70 years.
Visit the Department of Health’s Flu News web page for more information, or follow us on and for up-to-date news and discussions on flu and other health-related topics.
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What Are The Advantages Of A Covid
Aside from being a needle-free vaccine option, a nasal spray may have other benefits. For example, it wont cause arm pain, swelling, and redness like the shot can. This would also prevent large, itchy rashes that some people experience .
As mentioned above, nasal vaccines also build up antibodies in your nasal tissue. This might help protect your upper respiratory tract, which is the initial target of the virus.
Researchers are also looking to see if a nasal vaccine would be better at protecting against infection or preventing spread. So far, animal studies have been promising in answering these questions.
One recent animal study showed that a nasal vaccine could lower viral shedding. Viral shedding is when an infected person releases virus particles into the environment around them . This is how the virus spreads and infects other people. You can also shed the virus before you know youre sick or infected. Thats why lowering viral shedding is important.
The same study found that a nasal vaccine created more neutralizing antibodies than the shot. Neutralizing antibodies bind to the virus and stop it from multiplying and infecting your cells. But both vaccine types were effective at lowering the amount of virus in the body.
Although this information is promising, its too soon to tell how well nasal spray vaccines will work in people. Larger clinical trials looking at safety and effectiveness in humans are needed first.
What Research Is Being Done On Covid
There are currently several clinical trials in process across the globe. Some are just getting started, while others are further along in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials.
Bharat Biotech : This company is currently researching a nasal spray vaccine using a modified chimpanzee virus that carries the spike protein. The company was cleared to start phase 2/3 clinical trials in August.
Codagenix : This is another company looking to move their vaccine forward into phase 2/3 clinical trials. Theyre researching a vaccine that contains a modified part of SARS-CoV-2. Their vaccine would create antibodies against more than just the spike protein.
The University of Hong Kong : They have already completed phase 1 and 2 clinical trials with their vaccine candidate. The vaccine contains a weakened live flu virus thats engineered with the spike protein.
The National Institutes of Health : This U.S. agency has repurposed AstraZenecas injectable vaccine into a nasal spray. It was tested on animals with promising results and is now being studied in phase 1 clinical trials.
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Who’s Being Offered The Vaccine
The flu vaccine’s offered to all:
Most children aged 2 to 5 years and primary school pupils have already been offered flu vaccine this year. Some areas in Scotland have also completed their secondary school pupils. Where they have not completed, this activity is now paused. This may be picked up again in the New year once the Omicron risk is reassessed.
When Is The Right Time To Get Vaccinated For The Seasonal Flu
The vaccine is usually available in early fall. It can take up to a couple of weeks for the body to build immunity to the flu. So, the best time to get a shot is as soon as the vaccine becomes available. But if you didn’t get one before the season started, it’s a good idea to still get one during the season to lower your risk of getting sick.
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Lancaster University / Biomedical Research Institute Texas
The Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Lancaster University has engineered a COVID-19 vaccine based on a live attenuated and vectored Newcastle Disease virus encoding a human codon-optimised S glycoprotein gene of SARS-CoV-2, that is administered by the intranasal route. The NDV vaccine platform has been shown in preclinical models and in humans to be safe and effective against a range of other viruses including influenza. In a published study, Park et al. evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of the rNDV-S based live attenuated virus vaccine in mice and the protective efficacy in hamsters. Groups of 12 BALB/c mice were inoculated with 106 PFU of the test vaccine in a prime/booster regimen 7 days apart, rNDV-S, a wild type NDV or with phosphate buffered saline. The rNDV-S induced robust systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in the lungs and in serum in mice, where CD4 + T cell IFNg and NK T-cell TNF + were significantly increased only for the rNDV-S vaccinated animals. The vaccine also appeared to be safe, since no clinical disease signs were observed throughout the experiments nor was any adverse pathology found in the tissues examined .
Children With Egg Allergies
Children with an egg allergy can safely have the nasal spray vaccine, unless they’ve had a life-threatening reaction to eggs that required intensive care.
An egg-free injectable vaccine which can be used in those from 2 years of age is available. If you’re affected, please speak to your immunisation nurse for advice.
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Are There Side Effects To The Flu Vaccine
Some people experience soreness or swelling at the site of the flu shot injection. And some have mild side effects like a headache, cough, body aches, or fever. These usually clear up in about one to two days.
The nasal spray sometimes causes mild symptoms, including:
- runny nose, congestion, or cough
Who Should Get This Vaccine
Flumist is licensed in Canada for use in those 2-59 years old however it is only publicly funded in Ontario for children 2 through 17 year olds.
Children less than 9 years of age getting the influenza vaccine for the first time are recommended to have two doses at least 4 weeks apart. This is the same for any influenza vaccine whether given by needle, or by nasal spray.
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Nras Statement For Those With Ra Who Care For Or Are In Close Contact With School
For parents, grandparents, teachers, carers the following is the guidance some of our medical advisors have suggested.
This is largely an evidence-free zone, and the advice that tends to be given is both overly conservative: should not be in contact with anyone who is immune-compromised for two weeks which is often impractical. Everyone living with RA is advised to have their flu vaccination as a matter, of course, anyway so if your child is about to have the live vaccine and youve had your own flu vaccine at least 2 weeks prior then this should give you adequate flu protection. However, the nasal flu vaccination spray does contain 4 strains of flu, whereas the injectable contains just 3 strains.
Generally, the view is that someone on standard DMARDs may NOT be regarded as immunocompromised but those on regular steroids of greater than 7.5mg daily or any biologic/biosimilar or small molecule therapy , they should be regarded as potentially immune-compromised for this purpose, especially also if over 70 years of age.
In summary, being aware and trying to take precautions ahead of being in close proximity to a vaccinated child is suggested. If you have already been in contact with a vaccinated child and are showing symptoms of flu, dont delay seeking medical advice from your GP or rheumatology team. Ideally, get your own flu vaccine 2 weeks in advance of the child/children being vaccinated in school.
Can People Receiving The Nasal
In clinical studies, transmission of vaccine viruses to close contacts occurred only rarely. The current estimated risk of getting infected with vaccine virus after close contact with a person vaccinated with the nasal-spray flu vaccine is low . Because the viruses are weakened, infection is unlikely to result in influenza illness symptoms since the vaccine viruses have not been shown change into typical or naturally occurring influenza viruses.
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Fluenz Tetra Nasal Spray Suspension Influenza Vaccine
This information is intended for use by health professionals
Fluenz Tetra nasal spray suspension
Reassortant influenza virus* of the following four strains**:
A/Victoria/2570/2019 pdm09 – like strain
* propagated in fertilised hens’ eggs from healthy chicken flocks.
** produced in VERO cells by reverse genetic technology. This product contains genetically modified organisms .
*** fluorescent focus units.
This vaccine complies with the WHO recommendation and EU decision for the 2021/2022 season.
The vaccine may contain residues of the following substances: egg proteins and gentamicin. The maximum amount of ovalbumin is less than 0.024 micrograms per 0.2 ml dose .
For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
Nasal spray, suspension
The suspension is colourless to pale yellow, clear to opalescent with a pH of approximately 7.2. Small white particles may be present.
Prophylaxis of influenza in children and adolescents from 24 months to less than 18 years of age.
The use of Fluenz Tetra should be based on official recommendations.
Immunisation must be carried out by nasal administration.
Do not inject Fluenz Tetra.
Fluenz Tetra is administered as a divided dose in both nostrils. After administering half of the dose in one nostril, administer the other half of the dose in the other nostril immediately or shortly thereafter. The patient can breathe normally while the vaccine is being administered there is no need to actively inhale or sniff.
How Many Doses Of Nasal Spray Vaccine Are Needed
In adults, only one dose of 2009 H1N1 vaccine, including the 2009 H1N1 nasal spray vaccine, is needed for protection.
All children 2 through 9 years of age getting a 2009 H1N1 vaccine will need two doses of 2009 H1N1 vaccine , The first dose should being given as soon as vaccine becomes available. The second dose should be given 28 or more days after the first dose. The first dose “primes” the immune system the second dose provides immune protection. Children who only get one dose of vaccine when they need two doses may have reduced or no protection. Be sure to follow up to get your child a second dose if they need one. It usually takes about two weeks after the second dose for protection to begin.
How Effective Is The Vaccine
The annual vaccine offers protection against the most common types of flu virus that are around each winter. The flu vaccine should start to protect most children about 10 to 14 days after they receive their vaccination.
Over the last few years the flu vaccine has worked very well, providing protection against flu. It has also reduced the chance of spreading flu into the wider community.
There is still a chance that your child could get flu after having the vaccine. If they do get flu after vaccination, it is likely to be milder and not last as long.
Washington University School Of Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine has developed a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on chimpanzee adenovirus that encodes a prefusion stabilised S protein. The immune response in mice, after IM and IN vaccination, was evaluated. The animals were immunised with 1010 viral particles of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S or ChAdV-empty in 50 L PBS via IM injection or IN inoculation. A subset group of vaccinated animals were given a booster immunization at four weeks. To express transiently the human ACE2 receptor in the mice, the vaccinated mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg anti-lfnar1 mAb one day before IN administration of 108 PFU of Hu-ADV5-hACE2. The mice were challenged five days later with an IN inoculation of 4 × 105 FFU of SARS-CoV-2. The IM vaccination induced strong systemic humoral, and cell mediated immune responses , but a minimal mucosal immune response. The IM vaccine did protect against lung infection, inflammation and pathology in the challenged animal model, however, the IM vaccination did not completely protect against the SARS-CoV-2 infection, since substantial levels of viral RNA were still detected in the lungs. In contrast, a single dose IN inoculated vaccine induced high levels of neutralising antibody and showed complete protection in upper and lower airways after the viral challenge .
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What Is Flumist Quadrivalent
FluMist® is a nasal spray influenza vaccine, given by spraying 0.1ml into each nostril. It is a live attenuated influenza vaccine , which means that the virus strains have been weakened so that they do not cause influenza.
Children are more susceptible to Influenza B. It is recommended that children receive a quadrivalent influenza vaccine, which protects against 2 strains of Influenza B. Trivalent influenza vaccine protects against 1 strain of Influenza B. In Ontario, the quadivalent influenza vaccine either comes by injection or as a nasal spray.
Children Who Can’t Have The Nasal Spray Vaccine
An alternative injectable form of the vaccine is available for children who cannot have the nasal spray vaccine.
This includes children who:
- have their immune system suppressed because they’re getting treatment for serious conditions, such as cancer, or if they’ve had a transplant
- have a serious condition which affects the immune system, such as severe primary immunodeficiency
- live with or are in close regular contact with very severely immunocompromised people who require isolation
- are taking regular high doses of oral steroids
- have had a severe reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine
- are undergoing salicylate treatment
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