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Dosage For Prevention Of Influenza

Could antiviral drugs mean an end to the coronavirus pandemic | COVID-19 Special

The typical dosage for flu prevention in adults and children ages 13 years and older is 75 mg of Tamiflu taken by mouth once daily.

Your doctor may prescribe Tamiflu if youve had close contact with a person who has the flu. Tamiflu is most effective at preventing the flu when the drug is given within 2 days of having this contact. For flu prevention, youll take Tamiflu for at least 10 days.

Your doctor may also prescribe Tamiflu if theres an influenza outbreak in your community. An outbreak is defined by an usually high number of people having the flu around the same period of time. If this happens, youll take Tamiflu for up to 6 weeks for prevention.

When Not To Use Antibiotics

Antibiotics are not the correct choice for all infections. For example, most sore throats, cough and colds, flu, COVID or acute sinusitis are viral in origin and do not need an antibiotic. These viral infections are self-limiting, meaning that your own immune system will usually kick in and fight the virus off.

Using antibiotics for viral infections can increase the risk for antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria cannot be fully inhibited or killed by an antibiotic, even though the antibiotic may have worked effectively before the resistance occurred. This can also lower your options for effective treatments if an antibiotic is needed eventually due to a secondary infection. Using unnecessary antibiotics also puts you at risk for side effects and adds extra cost.

It’s important not to share your antibiotic or take medicine that was prescribed for someone else, and don’t save an antibiotic to use the next time you get sick. It may not be the right drug for your illness.

To better understand antibiotics, its best to break them down into common infections, common antibiotics, and the top antibiotic classes as listed in

Does Tamiflu Work We Asked A Scientist

This years flu season has killed more than 100 children, and led to more than 1,100 hospitalizations per week a rate the U.S. has not seen in more than 15 years.

When the flu strikes, many rush to the doctor for Tamiflu, a popular drug approved to treat influenzas basic symptoms and keep the virus from multiplying in the body. But doctors also prescribe the drug to tackle or prevent the flus life-threatening complications, like pneumonia and asthma attacks.

NewsHour asked a drug safety researcher, a virologist at a childrens hospital and a medical officer at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention whether Tamiflu delivers on these claims.

What does Tamiflu do?

Tamiflu is an antiviral drug that blocks an enzyme called neuraminidase, which helps the flu virus replicate and spread through your body. Most flu researchers agree on the basics that Tamiflu will reduce symptoms, like stuffy nose, sore throat, fever and tiredness, which is something many over-the-counter medications do too.

The ideal scenarios is to start treatment as soon as possible, said Dr. Elena Govorkova, laboratory director in the division of virology at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital in Memphis, Tenn. The most efficacy is received when treatment starts within 48 hours after symptoms start to appear.

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How Should I Take Oseltamivir

Take oseltamivir exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets. Use the medicine exactly as directed.

Start taking this medicine as soon as possible after flu symptoms appear, such as fever, chills, muscle aches, sore throat, and runny or stuffy nose.

Take the oseltamivir capsule with a full glass of water.

Shake the oral suspension before you measure a dose. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device .

Oseltamivir may be taken with food if it upsets your stomach.

To treat flu symptoms: Take oseltamivir every 12 hours for 5 days.

To prevent flu symptoms: Take oseltamivir every 24 hours for 10 days or as prescribed. Follow your doctor’s instructions.

Read and carefully follow any Instructions for Use provided with your medicine. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you do not understand these instructions.

Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time, even if your symptoms quickly improve. Tell your doctor if your symptoms do not improve, or if they get worse.

Store oseltamivir capsules at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Store liquid medicine in the refrigerator but do not freeze. Throw away any unused liquid after 17 days.

The liquid may also be stored at cool room temperature for up to 10 days

Side Effects In Children

Day &  Night Cold, Flu, Congestion and Cough

During studies, vomiting was one of the most common side effects seen in children ages 2 weeks to 1 year. In this age group, 9% of children taking Tamiflu had vomiting. In children ages 1 year to 12 years, 16% of children had vomiting while taking Tamiflu. In the same age group, vomiting occurred in 8% of children taking a placebo .

If your child is vomiting while theyre taking Tamiflu, its important to make sure they stay hydrated and receive electrolytes during treatment.

Vomiting may lead to dehydration , which may be serious if not treated. You should call your doctor right away if your child has any of the following symptoms, which may indicate dehydration:

  • a dry mouth
  • no urination for 12 hours or urine that appears dark in color

Other common side effects seen in children taking Tamiflu can include diarrhea and diaper rash.

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Is Tamiflu Available Over The Counter

Tamiflu isnt currently available to purchase over the counter . However, one drug manufacturer is currently working with the Food and Drug Administration to make Tamiflu available OTC.

The FDA has specific requirements that must be met before a drug can be sold OTC. This includes testing to make sure the drug can be purchased and used safely without a prescription. While the drug manufacturer works on meeting those requirements, Tamiflu is only available by prescription. It could be several years before Tamiflu is available to purchase over the counter.

The Tamiflu dosage your doctor prescribes will depend on several factors. These include:

  • whether youre using Tamiflu to either treat or prevent influenza
  • the form of Tamiflu you take
  • other medical conditions you may have

The following information describes dosages that are commonly used or recommended. However, be sure to take the dosage your doctor prescribes for you. Your doctor will determine the best dosage to suit your needs.

How Should This Medicine Be Used

Oseltamivir comes as a capsule and a suspension to take by mouth. When oseltamivir is used to treat flu symptoms, it is usually taken two times a day for 5 days. When oseltamivir is used to prevent flu, it is usually taken once a day for at least 10 days, or for up to 6 weeks during a community flu outbreak. Oseltamivir may be taken with or without food, but is less likely to cause upset stomach if it is taken with food or milk. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part that you do not understand. Take oseltamivir exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

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Other Ways To Prevent Covid

In most cases, serious disease and death due to COVID-19 or the flu can be prevented by vaccines. In addition, mask-wearing, frequent and thorough hand washing, coughing into the crook of your elbow, staying home when sick and limiting contact with people who are infected are effective safety precautions. Physical distancing limits the spread of COVID-19 and flu in communities.

Staying Safe from the Flu and COVID-19

With flu season here amid the continuing COVID-19 pandemic, what are the differences between COVID-19 and the flu? How can you protect yourself and your family from both illnesses? Get these and other questions answered by Johns Hopkins Medicine infectious diseases experts from our Nov 12 Facebook Live event: Staying Safe from the Flu and COVID-19 This Winter.

Staying Safe from the Flu and COVID-19

With flu season here amid the continuing COVID-19 pandemic, what are the differences between COVID-19 and the flu? How can you protect yourself and your family from both illnesses? Get these and other questions answered by Johns Hopkins Medicine infectious diseases experts from our Nov 12 Facebook Live event: Staying Safe from the Flu and COVID-19 This Winter.

Top 10 List Of Common Infections Treated With Antibiotics

Debunking common myths about the flu, vaccine
  • Carbapenems
  • Most antibiotics fall into their individual antibiotic classes. An antibiotic class is a grouping of different drugs that have similar chemical and pharmacologic properties. Their chemical structures may look comparable, and drugs within the same class may kill the same or related bacteria.

    However, it is important not to use an antibiotic for an infection unless your doctor specifically prescribes it, even if it’s in the same class as another drug you were previously prescribed. Antibiotics are specific for the kind of bacteria they kill. Plus, you would need a full treatment regimen to effectively cure your infection, so don’t use or give away leftover antibiotics.

    Note: Tables below are not all-inclusive, generics are available for many brands.

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    Table 2 Recommended Dosage And Duration Of Influenza Antiviral Medications For Treatment Or Chemoprophylaxis

    Antiviral Agent

    FDA approved and recommended for use in otherwise healthy children 5 yrs and older.

    Weight < 80 kg: One 40 mg dose

    weight > 80 kg: One 80 mg dose9

    Chemo-prophylaxis9 FDA-approved for post-exposure prophylaxis for persons aged 5 years and older. Dosage is the same as for treatment. Dosage is the same as for treatment

    Abbreviations: N/A = not approved

    • Treatment: Recommended duration for antiviral treatment is 5 days for oral oseltamivir or inhaled zanamivir. For the treatment of uncomplicated influenza with intravenous peramivir or oral baloxavir, a single dose is recommended. Longer daily dosing can be considered for patients who remain severely ill after 5 days of treatment. Treatment should be started as soon as possible for the greatest clinical benefit.
    • Chemoprophylaxis: Recommended duration is 7 days . For control of outbreaks in institutional settings and hospitals, CDC recommends antiviral chemoprophylaxis with oral oseltamivir or inhaled zanamivir for a minimum of 2 weeks and continuing up to 1 week after the last known case was identified. Antiviral chemoprophylaxis is recommended for all residents, including those who have received influenza vaccination. Baloxavir is approved for post-exposure prophylaxis of influenza in persons aged 5 years and older within 48 hours of contact with an individual with influenza.

    For Now Generic Oseltamivir Is Still A Good Option

    Given the results of CAPSTONE-1, when should baloxavir be used, and should it be used in place of oseltamivir? Baloxavir is approved for the treatment of influenza in patients 12 and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours. The main advantage of baloxavir is that a single oral dose is effective, whereas oseltamivir needs to be taken twice daily for five days. However, both drugs reduce the duration of flu-like symptoms. Oseltamivir is now available generically, and may be less expensive than baloxavir. Therefore, unless a doctor suspects that someone is unable or unlikely to complete a five-day course of medication, oseltamivir remains an appropriate choice for the majority of people with influenza, pending additional data or prescribing guidelines.

    About the Author

    Daniel Kuritzkes, MD, Contributor

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    Financial And Insurance Assistance

    If you need financial support to pay for Tamiflu, or if you need help understanding your insurance coverage, help is available.

    Genentech, the manufacturer of Tamiflu, may offer assistance to help lower the cost of Tamiflu. For more information and to find out if youre eligible for support, call 877-436-3683 or visit the program website.

    What Are The Benefits Of Antiviral Medications


    Antiviral medications, if started within 48 hours after the symptoms begin, can help relieve flu symptoms and make the flu less severe. Some antiviral medications can shorten the duration of flu symptoms by about 1 to 2 days, depending on the medication used.

    Antiviral medications can also help reduce the risk of flu complications. An analysis of 11 clinical studies in over 5000 people found that certain antiviral medications can decrease the risk of flu complications by about 25% for otherwise healthy people. And for people at risk of flu complications, these medications can reduce the risk by about 60%.

    If you are at risk of flu complications and think you might have the flu, see your doctor as soon as possible. If your doctor prescribes an antiviral medication, the medication should be started within 48 hours after your symptoms begin.

    Antiviral medications can also be used to reduce the risk of getting the flu for people who have had close contact with someone who has the flu .

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    Alternatives For Treatment Of Influenza

    Examples of other drugs that may be used to treat the flu include:

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that every person ages 6 months and older who is healthy enough to get a flu vaccine get one. Getting vaccinated helps to prevent influenza infections and spreading the virus between people.

    Most flu vaccines are given by injection . However, the FluMist vaccine is given as a nasal spray. The CDC recommends that you receive a flu vaccine each year. Talk with your doctor for more information about the different types of vaccines, and to schedule a time to get your flu vaccine.

    You may wonder how Tamiflu compares to other medications that are prescribed for similar uses. Here we look at how Tamiflu and Xofluza are alike and different.

    What Are The Risks Of Antiviral Medications

    Like any medication, antiviral medications may have side effects. These differ between medications, but the most common side effects are:

    • nausea or vomiting
    • abdominal pain

    Some antiviral medications may cause other side effects, such as dizziness, diarrhea, nose irritation, bronchitis, coughing, and infections of the ear, sinuses, nose, or throat.

    Serious side effects are very rare. They may include allergic reactions, breathing problems, skin rashes, or liver problems . People with the flu are also at risk of seizures, confusion, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, or abnormal behavior. These symptoms may happen after antiviral treatment is started, but they may also happen even when the flu is not treated.

    If you notice any of these serious side effects, or have any other concerns about side effects, talk to your doctor.

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    Can Tamiflu Capsules Be Crushed Split Or Chewed

    Tamiflu capsules shouldnt be crushed or chewed. But in some cases, the capsules can be split open.

    If you have trouble taking Tamiflu, your doctor or pharmacist may show you how to open the capsules. Then youll mix the contents of the capsule with a sweet liquid and swallow it.

    Your doctor or pharmacist may also prescribe the oral suspension form of Tamiflu for you. This form may be easier for you to take.

    You may wonder how Tamiflu compares to other medications that are taken for influenza . Here we look at how Tamiflu and Oscillococcinum are alike and different.

    Henephs Laxative Cold Tablets

    What over-the-counter medicine works best at kicking the cough of the common cold and bronchitis?

    Sold in the 1930s, these tablets had active ingredients, including extract of gelsemium, which raises serious safety concerns as its said to contain substances that act in the brain to reduce pain camphor, which is safe to apply topically but is unsafe to take orally and can cause serious side effects, including death and ipecac, which can be used as an expectorant but is also used to induce vomiting after suspected poisoning.

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    What Should I Know About Storage And Disposal Of This Medication

    Keep this medication in the container it came in and out of reach of children. Store the capsules at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture . Commercial oseltamivir suspension can be kept at room temperature for up to 10 days or in the refrigerator for up to 17 days. Oseltamivir suspension prepared by a pharmacist can be kept at room temperature for up to 5 days or in the refrigerator for up to 35 days. Do not freeze oseltamivir suspension.

    It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location â one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach.

    Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA’s Safe Disposal of Medicines website for more information if you do not have access to a take-back program.

    Table 3 Recommended Oseltamivir And Peramivir Dose Adjustments For Treatment Or Chemoprophylaxis Of Influenza In Adult Patients With Renal Impairment Or End Stage Renal Disease On Dialysis*

    Creatinine Clearance

    * From package inserts for oseltamivir and peramivir see FDA Influenza Antiviral Drugs and Related Information.

    Abbreviations: N/A = approved, not recommended1 Renal dosing of oseltamivir is not available in the package insert for pediatric patients. However, these tables may be useful for children who qualify for adult doses based on weight > 40 kg.2 Assuming 3 hemodialysis sessions are performed in the 5- day period. Treatment can be initiated immediately if influenza symptoms develop during the 48 hours between hemodialysis sessions however, the post-hemodialysis dose should still be administered independently of time of administration of the initial dose.3 An initial dose can be administered prior to the start of dialysis.4 Data derived from studies in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.5 Renal dosing from peramivir package insert is available for pediatric patients: Creatinine clearance 50 mL/min: 12 mg/kg Creatinine clearance 30 to 49 mL/min: 4 mg/kg Creatinine clearance 10 to 29 mL/min: 2 mg/kg.

    For more information, visit the Seasonal Influenza site, email CDC-INFO, or call CDC at 800-CDC-INFO or 888-232-6348 .

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