Tuesday, October 3, 2023

Shingrix And Flu Shot Interval

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Is The Bivalent Covid

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The basic ingredients used in both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech bivalent boosters are the same as the original monovalent vaccine. Testing by Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech of their original monovalent vaccines showed that the vaccines were safe. In reviewing the bivalent boosters, the FDA concluded that small changes in the vaccine target shouldnt change the safety profile, in line with what is done with the flu vaccine.

Is It Safe To Receive The Influenza Vaccine During Pregnancy

It is safe and recommended to receive the influenza vaccine during pregnancy. Immunisation not only provides protection for the mother against disease, but maternal antibodies are also transmitted to the baby, which will provide protection against disease for the first few months of life. Influenza immunisation is funded on the National Immunisation Program for all pregnant women.

What Are The Side Effects Of The Shingles Vaccine

Most side effects of the shingles vaccine are mild and typically last only 2 to 3 days.

One of the most common side effects of the shingles vaccine is an injection site reaction. This can include redness, swelling, or soreness where you got your shot.

Other side effects can include:

  • muscle aches and pains

Side effects felt throughout your body are typically more common after receiving the second and booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Like the shingles vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine side effects typically last only a couple of days.

When COVID-19 and flu circulate at the same time, it has the potential to cause many people to become ill and overburden the healthcare system. As such, its essential to receive both COVID-19 and flu vaccines.

Its safe to receive your COVID-19 and flu vaccine at the same time.

Though were still learning more about giving the COVID-19 vaccine with other vaccines, a found no safety concerns when the COVID-19 and flu vaccine were given at the same time. Also, participants produced expected antibody responses to both vaccines.

The CDC that all people ages 6 months and older get a flu vaccine. The flu vaccine can help prevent illness and reduce the risk of serious flu-related complications in vulnerable individuals, such as:

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How Do We Know That Influenza Immunisation Is Safe In Children

Surveillance of influenza vaccine safety continues to occur via AusVaxSafety which monitors post influenza immunisation outcomes. In children 6 months to < 5 years of age, it has been found that children in this age group experience only low rates of fevers and medical attendance post influenza immunisation. Online reporting of adverse events following immunisation can be reported online to SAEFVIC.

Who Can Have The Shingles Vaccination

Shingles vaccination is available to everyone aged 70 to 79.

When you’re eligible, you can have the shingles vaccination at any time of year.

The shingles vaccine is not available on the NHS to anyone aged 80 or over because it seems to be less effective in this age group.

Read more about who can have the shingles vaccine.

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Doses Given Before The Recommended Age

Age recommendations for receipt of vaccines are based on the age at which the risk of disease is highest and for which vaccine safety and efficacy have been demonstrated. When providing vaccine doses at less than the recommended age, it is important to know the minimum age for administering the vaccine, since doses given before the recommended age may lead to a less than optimal immune response. For example, the minimum age for influenza vaccine is 6 months because the vaccine provides poor protection in younger infants.

There may be circumstances in which administering a vaccine a few days before the recommended age may be appropriate to avoid missing an opportunity for vaccination . However, generally, if a vaccine dose is given before the recommended age, the dose should be repeated on or after the date when the person reaches the age for which the vaccine is recommended. For example, although measles-mumps-rubella vaccine may be given as early as 6 months of age, 2 additional doses of measles-containing vaccine must be administered after the child is 12 months old to ensure long lasting immunity to measles.

Refer to vaccine-specific chapters in Part 4 for additional information on recommended and minimum ages for vaccine administration. Refer to Immunization of Travellers chapter in Part 3 for detailed information about accelerated immunization schedules for travel health protection.

How Is Shingrix Given

Shingrix is given as an injection into a muscle. A healthcare provider will give you this injection.

Shingrix is usually given in a series of 2 shots:

  • the second shot may be given any time within 2 to 6 months after the first shot.

  • for people who have a weak immune system, the second shot may be given any time within 1 to 2 months after the first shot.

You may receive this vaccine at the same time that you get a flu shot.

Read all patient information, medication guides, and instruction sheets provided to you. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

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How Do I Get The Shingles Vaccination

Once you become eligible for the shingles vaccination, a GP or practice nurse will offer you the vaccine when you attend the surgery for general reasons.

You can have a shingles vaccine at the same time as most other vaccines. But try to leave 7 days between the shingles vaccine and a coronavirus vaccine, so that if you have any side effects you’ll know which vaccine they were from.

If you are worried that you may miss out on the shingles vaccination, contact your GP surgery to arrange an appointment to have the vaccine.

What Is A Bivalent Covid

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Up to now, COVID-19 vaccines have targeted the original COVID-19 strain. As we know, COVID-19 variants have made the vaccines a little less effective over time. The new bivalent vaccine provides protection against both the original strain and the new Omicron BA.4/BA.5 variants. This provides broader protection against COVID-19 and is just like what happens with the flu vaccine every year.

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How Quickly Is Immunity Developed After Receiving The Influenza Vaccine

Most people will develop immunity within two to three weeks of vaccination providing optimal protection for the first 3-4 months thereafter. As influenza disease usually occurs from June, with the peak around August, vaccinating from mid-April will allow people to develop immunity before influenza transmission is at its peak. You can also speak with your doctor for advice on the best time to receive your vaccine, based on your individual circumstances.

Do Immunosuppressed People Require 2 Doses Of Influenza Vaccines

People with certain immunocompromising conditions should receive 2 doses, a minimum of 4 weeks apart, of QIV formulation of influenza vaccine in the first year of being immunosuppressed. Only 1 dose is required annually thereafter. An exception to this is patients receiving high-immunogenicity vaccines where only 1 dose is recommended .

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Should We Have A Dose Of The Vaccine Early In The Season And A Second Dose Later In The Season

For healthy individuals, the recommendation is to receive one dose of influenza vaccine annually. Re-vaccination later in the same year is not routinely recommended but may benefit some individuals due to circumstances such as travel or pregnancy. The decision to recommend a second dose should take into account a persons medical risk factors, risk of disease exposure and the current circulating virus strains.

When Is The Ideal Time To Be Immunised Against The Flu

Annual vaccination before the onset of influenza season is recommended for all individuals 6 months of age. The peak period of circulating influenza disease is typically June to September, however out of season cases do occur. The influenza season may be atypical in 2022 following the reopening of international borders in the context of COVID-19. Optimal protection against influenza occurs within the first 3-4 months following vaccination. It is never too late in the season to vaccinate.

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Administration With Other Vaccines

CDC general recommendations advise that recombinant and adjuvanted vaccines, such as Shingrix, can be administered concomitantly, at different anatomic sites, with other adult vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines. Concomitant administration of Shingrix with Fluarix Quadrivalent , 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed , and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been studied, and there was no evidence for interference in the immune response to either vaccine or safety concerns. Coadministration of Shingrix with adjuvanted influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccines is being studied.

Shingrix and pneumococcal vaccine can be administered at the same visit if the person is eligible for both. When both pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV13 and PPSV23 are recommended for an adult, PCV13 should always be administered first and can be administered concomitantly with Shingrix.

Why Is Shingrix Administered In Two Doses

Shingrix is typically given in two doses, usually as a shot to the upper arm.

A 2021 study found that adults over 65 were significantly less likely to develop either shingles or PHN after getting two doses of Shingrix than they were after one dose. Two doses of Shingrix also offered better protection against shingles complications to adults over 80 and immunocompromised adults.

Previously, Zostavax was offered to older and immunocompromised adults to prevent shingles, PHN, and other shingles-related health problems. Zostavax is a live vaccine, which means it contains a weakened version of the herpes zoster virus. Shingrix is a recombinant vaccine, meaning that it uses only a small piece of the virus.

In 2017, the Food and Drug Administration approved Shingrix for the prevention of shingles and related complications. Zostavax is no longer available in the U.S. People who have gotten Zostavax in the past should now get Shingrix.

Studies have shown that Zostavaxa one-dose vaccineis generally less effective than two doses of Shingrix in preventing shingles complications among older and immunocompromised adults. Shingrix currently offers the best chance of protection against shingles, PHN, and shingles-related hospitalization.

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What Is The Recommended Site For Injection When Giving Multiple Vaccines In The Same Visit

The preferred injection site for adults and children 12 months of age is the deltoid. For infants < 12 months of age the recommended injection site is the middle third of the vastus lateralis . More than 1 vaccine can be given into each site for injection ensuring a 2.5cm spacing between each vaccine. In some circumstances in children 12 months of age, the anterolateral aspect of the thigh may also be considered as an alternate site if required. For more information please refer to MVEC: Administration of injected vaccines-correct technique.

Pneumococcal Disease And Pneumonia

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Pneumonia is a lung infection usually caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. It can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages, says the CDC.

The CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all adults age 65 or older to protect against serious pneumococcal disease, including meningitis and bloodstream infections. The CDC also recommends pneumococcal vaccination for adults 19 through 64 years old who have certain chronic medical conditions or other risk factors, including chronic heart disease, chronic lung disease, cigarette smoking, and diabetes, among many others.

There are two kinds of pneumococcal vaccines available in the United States:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

For those who have never received any pneumococcal vaccine, the CDC recommends PCV15 or PCV20 for adults 65 years or older and adults 19 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions or risk factors. If PCV15 is used, this should be followed by a dose of PPSV23 at least one year later, or eight weeks later for people with certain health conditions.

For those who previously received PPSV23 but who have not received any pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, they may receive one dose of PCV15 or PCV20 at least one year after PPSV23.

For healthy adults who had PCV13 at any age, the CDC recommends one dose of PPSV23 at age 65 or older, at least one year after PCV13 was received.

At this point, pneumococcal vaccinations are complete.

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Why Is The Influenza Vaccine Recommended Annually

The circulating strains of influenza virus varies each year and therefore influenza vaccines are modified annually to provide protection against those more commonly circulating strains. Optimal influenza disease protection occurs in the first 3-4 months following immunisation before it begins to wane. Annual influenza immunisation is therefore strongly recommended to have the best possible protection against influenza disease and its complications.

Is It Possible To Get Shingles Twice

Most people who get shingles only experience it one time in their lives. However, it is possible to get shingles more than once . This is known as recurrent shingles. Getting vaccinated can help minimize the chance that this will happen.

These are only a few of the many questions people may have about Shingrix. To learn more about the vaccine and shingles, individuals can consult a medical professional.

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When To See A Healthcare Provider

For most people, the effects of Shingrix are mild and short-term. In very rare cases, Shingrix can cause more serious side effects.

Seek urgent medical care if you experience signs of a severe allergic reaction a few minutes or hours after your second dose of Shingrix, such as:

  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Facial swelling
  • Swelling in the throat or mouth

You should also let your healthcare provider know if your Shingrix side effects are severe or arent going away on their own.

What Are The Pros And Cons Of Being Vaccinated

The benefits of vaccination generally far outweigh any risks, Privor-Dumm says. Although vaccines do have some side effects, most are mild and temporary.

The bigger con is getting disease, which may lead to further health complications, she adds. For instance, people who are hospitalized with influenza have a greater likelihood of heart attack or stroke following their illness, and the economic consequences of a serious illness can be catastrophic for some. Thats why its best to prevent disease in the first place.

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Why Are Adjuvanted Formulations Of Influenza Vaccine The Preferred Vaccine For Older People

A gradual decline of the immune system occurs as people age , impacting how the immune system responds to immunisation. For older adults the higher-immunogenecity influenza vaccines are preferentially recommended over standard QIVs as the antibody response is increased in comparison to non-adjuvanted QIV influenza vaccines.

Whilst there is no preference between either of the higher-immunogenicity vaccines available in 2022, they are the preferred choice compared with standard formulations for individuals 65 years. Fluad® Quad is funded on the NIP for people aged 65 years of age. FluZone High-Dose Quad is available for private purchase for individuals from 60 years.

Will There Be Any Side Effects From The Shingles Vaccination

There are 2 shingles vaccines: Zostavax and Shingrix .

With both vaccines it’s quite common to get redness and discomfort at the vaccination site, headaches and fatigue, but these side effects should not last more than a few days. See a GP if you have side effects that last longer than a few days, or if you develop a rash after having the shingles vaccination.

Read more about the shingles vaccine side effects.

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If An Individual Has Had A Reaction To A Covid

There are only two absolute contraindications to an influenza vaccine, anaphylaxis to a previous dose of any influenza vaccine or a component of any influenza vaccine.

Adverse events following a COVID-19 vaccine should be reported to SAEFVIC and referred to VicSIS for specialist advice and follow up if indicated.

A previous reaction to a COVID-19 vaccine is not a contraindication to receiving an influenza vaccine.

Who Should Get Shingrix

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Anyone who has ever had chickenpox can develop shingles later in life. However, it is vital for older adults and people with weakened immune systemssuch as people with kidney disease or human immunodeficiency virus to get the shingles vaccine.

The CDC recommends that all adults ages 50 and up and immunocompromised adults ages 19 and over get two doses of Shingrix. This includes people who don’t know whether they had chickenpox and people who previously received Zostavax or the chickenpox vaccine.

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Shingles Vaccine Has Well

The recombinant zoster vaccine, approved in 2017, has replaced the live attenuated zoster vaccine. The previous vaccine caused fewer adverse effects but was far less effective in preventing shingles in older adults.

The recombinant vaccine is now recommended for most adults at least 50 years of age as a one-time, two-dose series.

It is critical to discern the reasons people are not getting their flu shots because fewer than half of American adults get an annual flu shot. Of those, 30% cite potential adverse effects as the reason for hesitation.

However, only injection-site symptoms, such as pain, redness, and swelling, are known to be caused by the influenza vaccine.

Researchers adjusted for factors that could differ between the two study groups, including demographic, clinical, and healthcare use variables.

They also adjusted for insurance type, month, and location of the 2018/19 influenza vaccination, and concurrent administration of any additional vaccines besides the zoster vaccine.

“We also adjusted for several comorbidities known to increase the risk of complications from influenza, including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, chronic kidney disease, or liver disease, and immunocompromising conditions,” the authors write.

They also took into account whether people in the study had had the flu vaccine in the year prior to the study.

Why Do I Need Two Doses Of Shingrix

In addition to a painful rash, shingles can lead to serious health complications like PHN, pneumonia, vision loss, hearing problems, and encephalitis . Research indicates that about 1% to 4% of people with shingles will be hospitalized.

Two doses of Shingrix offer effective protection against shingles and related complications for at least seven years. Among healthy adults ages 50-69, Shingrix is more than 90% effective in preventing PHN when two doses are administered. Among adults ages 70 and older, it is 89% effective.

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