When To See A Doctor For Influenza A Or B
A majority of people will ride out the flu from home with only mild-to-moderate symptoms. But sometimes its better to visit your healthcare provider. Anyone with one or more of the risk factors for complications listed above should consider seeing a professional to make sure it doesnt evolve into a more severe disease or respiratory infection.
A healthcare provider might also be necessary for individuals with severe or prolonged symptoms or other complications like difficulty breathing, chest pain, sudden dizziness, vomiting, neck stiffness, or loss of consciousness.
What Are The Symptoms Of The Flu In A Child
The flu is a respiratory disease, but it can affect the whole body. A child can become suddenly ill with any or all of these symptoms:
Fever, which may be as high as 103°F to 105°F
Body aches, which may be severe
Extreme tiredness that can last weeks
Sore throat in some cases
A cold is usually mild and often goes away after a few days. The flu can cause severe symptoms and lead to problems such as pneumonia and even death. The symptoms of the flu can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees his or her healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Who Contracts Influenza A Or B
Another difference between influenza A and B is the range of animal hosts they infect in addition to people.
Wild and domestic birds are the natural hosts for nearly all influenza type A subtypes. Various A subtypes can also infect a variety of mammals including pigs, ferrets, horses, bats and humans, of course.
Influenza type B viruses infect humans almost exclusively, though they have been rarely found in other mammals such as seals. Influenza type B viruses do not infect birds.
- Another difference between influenza A and B is the range of animal hosts they infect in addition to people.
- Influenza type B viruses infect humans almost exclusively, though they have been rarely found in other mammals such as seals.
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The Drs Tv: Cold Vs Flu Symptoms
Cold symptoms include sore throat, stuffy nose, sneezing, and cough. It can last about a week.
Flu symptoms are things like high fever, aches & pain, extreme exhaustion, and cough. A flu cough is more dry than a cold cough.
If youre still in the first 48 hours of your flu, some antiviral medications may help to cut down on the length of your illness.
Difference Between Influenza A And B
Influenza A vs B
Influenza is the common viral infection, which is commonly called the flu. This infection is common to mammals as well as birds. The viruses are all belong to the group orthomyxoviridae. There are three types of influenza viruses. They are type A, B and C. Even though the virology may differ from one infection to the other, general features, symptoms, investigations and diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis go along similar principles.
Full blood count may show a response to infection. Viral cultures may be used to confirm the diagnosis if doubts are there. Drinking a lot of fluids, bed rest, and good nutrition are very important to aid recovery. Antivirals are needed only in severe disease. Neuraminidase inhibitors and M2 inhibitors are the most commonly used antiviral drug classes. Prevention of influenza is difficult because of it can spread along many pathways. Good hygiene, hand washing, using separate utensils, and wearing masks may go a long way towards limiting spread. There is a flu vaccine available. It is recommended to healthcare workers, children, elderly, and people with long standing diseases. This vaccine can even be given to HIV/AIDS patients, post-transplant patients, and those who are on immuno-suppressive drugs. Because influenza viruses mutate and change rapidly, vaccination does not confer lifelong immunity. The protection lasts for about two to three years.
Influenza A is commoner than B.
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Type A Influenza And Its Subtypes
Type A influenza viruses are divided into subtypes, based on the presence of two glycoproteins on the surface of the virus. These glycoproteins are called hemagglutinin and neuraminidase . About 18 hemagglutinins have been identified, although generally, only H1, H2, and H3 are found in human influenza viruses. There are more than 100 types of neuraminidase, but only N1 and N2 have been positively linked to influenza epidemics in humans.
The above image shows the features of an influenza virus, including the surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase . Following influenza infection or receipt of the influenza vaccine, the bodys immune system develops antibodies that recognize and bind to antigenic sites, which are regions found on an influenza viruss surface proteins. By binding to these antigenic sites, antibodies neutralize flu viruses and prevent them from causing further infection. Source: CDC.
Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are also called antigens, substances that, when introduced into the body, stimulate the production of an antibody. Currently, there are two subtypes of influenza A viruses found circulating among human populations: influenza A and influenza A .
Wild Birds Provide the Usual Reservoirs
Zhejiang province, China . Shanghai, a city with a population of 24 million, is located on the northern tip of Zhejiang province. Source: Uwe Dedering, Wikipedia Commons.
Genetic Evolution of H7N9 Virus in China, 2013
Should I Worry About Catching Bird Flu
People in the United States have less to fear than people who live abroad. Most of the illnesses associated with bird flu have been reported in Asian countries among people who have had close contact with farm birds. Also, people are not able to catch the bird flu virus by eating cooked chicken, turkey, or duck. High temperatures kill the virus.
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En Quoi Consiste La Grippe De Type A Et B
Si les mÃ©dicaments en vente libre ne peuvent pas guÃ©rir la grippe, ils peuvent soulager vos symptÃ´mes pendant que vous attendez que le virus passe. Si vous avez un mal de gorge, un mal de tÃªte, la toux, de la fiÃ¨vre ou des courbatures et douleurs mineures, NyQuil Rhume et grippe et DayQuil Rhume et grippe sont de bonnes options puisquâils contiennent un agent qui soulage la douleur et qui combat la fiÃ¨vre, ainsi quâun antitussif. NyQuil Rhume et grippe soulage aussi lâÃ©coulement nasal alors que DayQuil Rhume et grippe soulage aussi la congestion nasale. Si vous souffrez dâautres symptÃ´mes, essayez NyQuil COMPLETE Rhume et grippe, qui contient Ã©galement un dÃ©congestionnant nasal, et DayQuil COMPLETE Rhume et grippe, qui contient un expectorant pour dÃ©loger les mucositÃ©s et les minces sÃ©crÃ©tions bronchiques, ce qui libÃ¨re les conduits bronchiques.Vous serez bientÃ´t sur le chemin de la guÃ©rison.
Demographics Baseline Characteristics And Clinical Characterization
Overall, 75,164 confirmed patients with COVID19 infection, 113,818 with influenza type A and 9266 with influenza type B were included in the metaanalysis, of which 51% of COVID19, 54% of influenza type A and 52% of influenza type B included patients who were male. Funnel plots for included studies did not detect significant publication bias . Table shows that most patients of COVID19 , influenza type A and influenza type B had fever. Cough was the second most common symptom presenting in the patients of COVID19 , influenza type A and influenza type B . Runny nose was the third most common symptom presenting in the patients of influenza type A and influenza type B of patients. While runny nose was less common symptom in COVID19 and it is presented in 14% of patients. Also, fatigue was the fourth most common symptom in influenza type A , while it was less common in COVID19 and influenza type B patients. Dyspnea was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . Likewise, sore throat was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . Also, rhinorrhea was less common in COVID19 patients , in comparison to influenza type A and influenza type B . There was no information about coryza in COVID19 patients, while it is presented in influenza type A by 47% and influenza type B by 32% of the patients .
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What Is The Difference Between Influenza A B And C
Influenza commonly known as the flu is classified as three different types based on its nucleic acids and protein composition, according to the National Institutes of Health .
Once tested, the flu is categorized as Type A, Type B, or Type C.
Type A flu viruses are found in humans and also in some animals, including ducks, chickens, and pigs, according to the NIH.
There are numerous types and subtypes of the Type A flu virus. Type A usually has the most severe flu symptoms and most frequently leads to extreme illness, including hospitalization and even death, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
Type B flu viruses are common among humans, according to the NIH.
The symptoms of Type B are similar to Type A. Both influenza A and B are immunized against in the annual flu vaccine, according to the CDC.
Influenza Type C has much milder symptoms, according to the NIH. It causes mild respiratory infections, but it is not severe enough to cause global outbreaks like Type A has in the past.
Symptoms of Type C are most similar to those of a cold, and the flu vaccine does not protect against influenza Type C viruses, according to the CDC.
For more about the difference between influenza types A, B, and C, talk with your doctor.
What Types Of Flu Do Vaccines Prevent
Flu vaccines are customized each year to protect against the strains researchers believe are most likely to circulate among humans that season. Every year, the vaccine contains:
- One influenza A virus
- One influenza A virus
- One or two influenza B viruses
The vaccine only protects you from the specific strains it contains. It doesn’t contain C or D viruses, and it doesn’t protect against other viral illnesses with similar symptoms, which often spread during flu season.
Eligibility And Inclusion Criteria
Studies to be eligible for inclusion in our metaanalysis had to have following predetermined criteria. All casecontrol, crosssectional, cohort studies, case reports and case series peerreviewed studies were included if they reported the number of confirmed cases of patients with demographic data clinical data radiology data laboratory data risk factor data. Also, influenza virus studies from 2000 to 2020 were included.
Treatments For Influenza A Or B
These two main types of flu viruses can also differ in their response to certain treatments. The antiviral medications zanamivir , oseltamivir , peramivir and baloxavir marboxil are active against and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of influenza types A and B infections.
The antiviral medications rimantadine and amantadine are FDA approved only for treatment of influenza type A infections because they are not active against type B viruses.
The CDC does not, however, recommend amantadine or rimantadine as first-line treatment for type A influenza because of high levels of resistance to these drugs among circulating strains.
- These two main types of flu viruses can also differ in their response to certain treatments.
- The antiviral medications rimantadine and amantadine are FDA approved only for treatment of influenza type A infections because they are not active against type B viruses.
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What Is Type A Flu Virus
Type A flu or influenza A viruses are capable of infecting animals, although it is more common for people to suffer the ailments associated with this type of flu. Wild birds commonly act as the hosts for this flu virus.
Type A flu virus is constantly changing and is generally responsible for the large flu epidemics. The influenza A2 virus is spread by people who are already infected. The most common flu hot spots are those surfaces that an infected person has touched and rooms where they have been recently, especially areas where they have been sneezing.
What Causes The Flu In A Child
The flu is caused by flu viruses. Flu viruses are divided into 3 types:
Influenza types A and B. These 2 types of viruses cause widespread illness almost every winter. They often lead to more people needing to go to the hospital, and more people dying from the flu. Public health officials focus on stopping the spread of types A and B. One of the reasons the flu remains a problem is because the viruses change often. This means that people are exposed to new types of the viruses each year.
Influenza type C. This type of virus causes a very mild respiratory illness. It rarely causes epidemics. It does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do.
A flu virus is often passed from child to child through sneezing or coughing. The virus can also live for a short time on surfaces. This includes doorknobs, toys, pens or pencils, keyboards, phones and tablets, and counter tops. It can also be passed through shared eating utensils and drinking. Your child can get a flu virus by touching something that was touched by an infected person, and then touching his or her mouth, nose, or eyes.
People are most contagious with the flu 24 hours before symptoms start, and while symptoms are most active. The risk of infecting others usually ends around day 7 of the illness. Because the flu can be spread before symptoms start, its easy to pick up a flu virus. This is true especially with children, who often touch many surfaces and then their mouth, nose, or eyes.
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How Long Is It Contagious
If you have the flu, youre contagious from at least a day before you begin to experience symptoms up through five days after your symptoms begin.
In more severe cases, you could be contagious for even longer after you begin experiencing symptoms. This number can fluctuate if your immune system is weak or undeveloped, specifically in cases of children or older adults.
Introduction And Mechanism Of Action
Influenza A and B viruses possess a surface glycoprotein with neuraminidase activity whereas influenza C viruses do not . This enzyme cleaves terminal sialic acid residues and destroys the receptors recognized by viral hemagglutinin. This activity is essential for release of virus from infected cells, for prevention of viral aggregates, and for viral spread within the respiratory tract.20 Zanamivir and oseltamivir are sialic acid analogues that potently and specifically inhibit influenza A and B neuraminidases by competitively and reversibly interacting with the active enzyme site.21 These drugs are active against all nine neuraminidase subtypes in nature including most of the avian strains of influenza A H5N1 and H9N2 that infect humans.
Robert G. Webster, in, 1999
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Influenza A Naming Conventions
Most of the flu names you’re likely familiar with are types of influenza Athe most significant one when it comes to human illness. Influenza A comes in two subtypes and many strains.
The subtypes are classified by the specific combination of two proteins that are attached to them:
- H, for hemagglutinin protein
- N, for neuraminidase protein
When naming the influenza, researchers will look at the subtype of hemagglutinin and the subtype of neuraminidase on that particular virus. There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin and 11 different subtypes of neuraminidase, which means the there are a number of different ways the two proteins can be paired. Still, only about 66% of the possible combinations of H and N have been found in nature.
Subtypes Of The Influenza A Virus
Influenza A is further divided into different subtypes. These subtypes are based off of the combination of two proteins on the viral surface: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase . There are 18 different H subtypes and 11 different N subtypes.
For example, the most common influenza A subtypes that go around seasonally in humans are H1N1 and H3N2. In 2017, H3N2 spread to dogs in Florida. In 2015, this same strain also infected dogs in an earlier outbreak in Chicago.
Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into strains.
Unlike influenza A, influenza B isnt further divided into subtypes. But it can be broken down further into specific viral lineages and strains.
The naming of influenza virus strains is complex. It includes information such as:
- influenza type
- species of origin
- geographical origin
approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in late 2018.
The zanamivir, oseltamivir, and peramivir medications noted above work by reducing the ability of the virus to release itself from infected cells. The newer drug, baloxavir marboxil works by reducing the ability of the virus to replicate.
These antiviral medications are most effective when started within the first 48 hours of your illness. Theyre ineffective in treating illness caused by influenza C.
Over-the-counter medications can be taken to relieve nasal congestion, fever, and aches and pains.
Getting lots of rest, eating a healthy diet, and drinking plenty of fluids helps your body fight the virus as well.
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Problems Caused By Hib
Hib bacteria can cause several serious infections, including:
- meningitis infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord
- pneumonia infection of the lungs
- pericarditis infection of the lining surrounding the heart
- epiglottitis infection of the epiglottis, the flap that covers the entrance to your windpipe
- infection of the joints
- cellulitis infection of the skin and underlying tissues
- osteomyelitis infection of the bones
Many children who develop Hib infections become very ill and need treatment with antibiotics in hospital.
Meningitis is the most severe illness caused by Hib. Even with treatment, 1 in every 20 children with Hib meningitis will die.