Saturday, September 16, 2023

What Does The Flu Affect

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Is The Moderna Booster Shot A Full Third Dose Of The Vaccine

How Does Flu Make You Sick?

The Moderna booster is a half dose of the same vaccine used in its first two full shots. The goal is to top up the formula and reinforce the body’s immune response against the virus and its variants. While the first two shots of the Moderna vaccine were each 100 micrograms, the booster is a 50-microgram dose.

Moderna said a 100-microgram version of its current vaccine, Spikevax, appears to raise antibody protection 83-fold but it is not yet planning to ask the CDC or FDA to approve the more potent booster.

Moderna is also working on a combination shot that contains this year’s flu vaccine and its COVID-19 booster vaccine, but that’s not available right now.

Moderna’s booster shot is currently half the size of a full dose.

Be Aware Of Complications

Sniffling, sneezing, coughing. Everyone knows getting a cold or the flu can be a miserable experience, but most people console themselves with the knowledge they will recover quickly. Usually this is true, but not always. In fact, there are some surprising health complications that can come from these seemingly minor illnesses.

Learn about side effects from cold and flu, and what to watch out for.

Can People Who Are Pregnant Get A Booster Shot

COVID-19 booster recommendations apply to all people 18 years and older, including pregnant women: “People who are pregnant or recently pregnant are more likely to get severely ill with COVID-19 compared with people who are not,” the CDC website says.

While there is no evidence that getting vaccinated decreases fertility in women or men, a recent study linked COVID-19 infection in pregnant women to a higher risk of stillbirth.

Read Also: Flu Symptoms For 2 Weeks

Should I Worry About Catching Bird Flu

People in the United States have less to fear than people who live abroad. Most of the illnesses associated with bird flu have been reported in Asian countries among people who have had close contact with farm birds. Also, people are not able to catch the bird flu virus by eating cooked chicken, turkey, or duck. High temperatures kill the virus.

Types Of Influenza Viruses

Influenza A: Symptoms, treatment, and prevention

This is a picture of an influenza A virus. Influenza A viruses are classified by subtypes based on the properties of their hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface proteins. There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 different NA subtypes. Subtypes are named by combining the H and N numbers e.g., A, A. Click on the image to enlarge the picture.

There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D. Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease almost every winter in the United States. Influenza A viruses are the only influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics, i.e., global epidemics of flu disease. A pandemic can occur when a new and different influenza A virus emerges that both infects people and has the ability to spread efficiently among people. Influenza C virus infections generally cause mild illness and are not thought to cause human epidemics. Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.

Conversely, when two flu viruses are antigenically similar, a hosts immune response elicited by infection or vaccination with one of the viruses will recognize and neutralize the other virus, thereby protecting against the other virus.

Influenza A viruses also change both genetically and antigenically. Influenza A viruses have formed many separate, genetically different clades in recent years that continue to co-circulate.

Read Also: What Flu Medicine Is Safe While Breastfeeding

Face Masks And Respiratory Hygiene

The WHO and the US CDC recommend individuals wear non-medical face coverings in public settings where there is an increased risk of transmission and where social distancing measures are difficult to maintain. This recommendation is meant to reduce the spread of the disease by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals and is complementary to established preventive measures such as social distancing. Face coverings limit the volume and travel distance of expiratory droplets dispersed when talking, breathing, and coughing. A face covering without vents or holes will also filter out particles containing the virus from inhaled and exhaled air, reducing the chances of infection. But, if the mask include an exhalation valve, a wearer that is infected would transmit the virus outwards through it, despite any certification they can have. So the masks with exhalation valve are not for the infected wearers, and are not reliable to stop the pandemic in a large scale. Many countries and local jurisdictions encourage or mandate the use of face masks or cloth face coverings by members of the public to limit the spread of the virus.

How Does The Flu Spread

The flu is contagious, which means it spreads from person to person. It mostly spreads through droplets in the air when people with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. It can spread from up to six feet away. Although it isnt as common, the flu can also spread from surfaces, for example, if you touch something the virus is on and then touch your nose, mouth, or eyes.

It’s possible to spread the flu before you feel sick and when you have symptoms. Typically, people with the flu can spread it a day before, and up to a week after feeling sick. Young children and people with weakened immune systems may be able to spread the flu for even longer. If you or someone you know is sick with the flu, take steps to help prevent spreading the disease.

Recommended Reading: How Old Is The Flu Shot

Indoor Ventilation And Avoiding Crowded Indoor Spaces

The CDC recommends that crowded indoor spaces should be avoided. When indoors, increasing the rate of air change, decreasing recirculation of air and increasing the use of outdoor air can reduce transmission. The WHO recommends ventilation and air filtration in public spaces to help clear out infectious aerosols.

Exhaled respiratory particles can build-up within enclosed spaces with inadequate ventilation. The risk of COVID-19 infection increases especially in spaces where people engage in physical exertion or raise their voice as this increases exhalation of respiratory droplets. Prolonged exposure to these conditions, typically more than 15 minutes, leads to higher risk of infection.

Displacement ventilation with large natural inlets can move stale air directly to the exhaust in laminar flow while significantly reducing the concentration of droplets and particles. Passive ventilation reduces energy consumption and maintenance costs but may lack controllability and heat recovery. Displacement ventilation can also be achieved mechanically with higher energy and maintenance costs. The use of large ducts and openings helps to prevent mixing in closed environments. Recirculation and mixing should be avoided because recirculation prevents dilution of harmful particles and redistributes possibly contaminated air, and mixing increases the concentration and range of infectious particles and keeps larger particles in the air.

Why Do People Need To Be Vaccinated Every Winter

How flu vaccine can affect COVID-19

It is important to be vaccinated every year. This is partly because influenza viruses constantly change, meaning different strains can circulate each year, and partly because immunity from an influenza vaccination decreases over time. Seasonal influenza vaccines are updated each year to provide the highest possible protection by matching the circulating viruses.

Read Also: Is The Flu Shot Good To Get

Damaged Lungs Degraded Muscles: Why Flu Makes You Feel So Bad

Every year, from 5 to 20 percent of the people in the United States will become infected with influenza virus. An average of 200,000 of these people will require hospitalization and up to 50,000 will die. Older folks over the age of 65 are especially susceptible to influenza infection, since the immune system becomes weaker with age. In addition, older folks are also more susceptible to long-term disability following influenza infection, especially if they are hospitalized.

We all know the symptoms of influenza infection include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, headaches and fatigue. But just what causes all the havoc? What is going on in your body as you fight the flu?

I am a researcher who specializes in immunology at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, and my laboratory focuses on how influenza infection affects the body and how our bodies combat the virus. Its interesting to note that many of the bodys defenses that attack the virus also cause many of the symptoms associated with the flu.

Treatment And Medication Options For Cold And Flu

There is no cure for either the flu or the common cold. There are over-the-counter options that can ease throat pain and cough, decongest the nose and sinuses, and lessen body aches and headaches.

RELATED: The Flu: Self-Treat, See a Doctor, or Go to the ER?

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Is The Moderna Covid

All booster shots will be free, regardless of immigration or health insurance status. However, depending on where you get your booster shot — for example, at a local pharmacy — you may be asked to provide your insurance card information, including your name, date of birth and membership number. But you will not be charged for your COVID-19 vaccine or booster shot.

Omicron Variant: How Can I Tell If My Symptoms Are Covid Flu Or Common Cold

Influenza A: Symptoms, treatment, and prevention

Omicron variant: How can I tell if my symptoms are COVID, flu or common cold?

Doctors admit it’s extremely difficult to differentiate between the flu and COVID, but there are subtle differences between omicron and delta variants.

FORT WORTH, Texas – With students returning to the classroom and the number of COVID-19 cases soaring, many parents are certain to face a dilemma. Should your child stay home because of a runny nose?

Cook Childrens Medical Center in Fort Worth said it has seen the number of pediatric COVID-19 cases skyrocket over the past week with about 31% of all tests or 600 per day coming back positive.

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Thats the highest its been since the pandemic began, higher than even the surge caused by the delta variant this past September.

Doctors attribute it to the omicron variant being much more transmissible than other variants. And even though the omicron variant is the dominant variant in North Texas right now, the delta variant is still circulating.

Recommended Reading: Safe Flu Medicine While Pregnant

Why Are Quadrivalent Vaccines Available In Some Countries But Not Others

So far, trivalent vaccines have been the most widely used vaccines in Europe. Trivalent vaccines protect against 3 influenza viruses usually 2 type A viruses and 1 type B virus. Discussions on the advantages of shifting to quadrivalent vaccines, which protect against 2 type A and 2 type B viruses, are ongoing. Quadrivalent vaccines are more expensive, but studies in some countries have shown that they may be cost-effective if overall costs for the health-care sector are taken into account. However, the economic background varies from country to country.

Is It Flu Or A Cold

It can sometimes be difficult to tell if you have flu or just a cold, as the symptoms can be quite similar. The main differences are:

Flu symptoms:

  • usually include fever and aching muscles
  • make you feel too unwell to continue your usual activities

Cold symptoms:

  • come on gradually
  • mainly affect your nose and throat
  • are fairly mild, so you can still get around and are usually well enough to go to work

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Moderna Covid Booster Faq: You Can Mix And Match With Pfizer After 5 Months

Booster shots for Moderna’s Spikevax vaccine have proven highly effective against omicron. You can now get boosted 5 months after a second shot of Pfizer.

New research shows the Moderna booster significantly increases protection against COVID and omicron.

The US Food and Drug Administration on Monday reduced the waiting period between the second shot of Pfizer’s mRNA vaccine and a follow-up booster from six months to five, but retained the six-month waiting period for those who received initial vaccinations of Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine. That means you can get a Moderna booster five months after an initial Pfizer vaccination, but still need to wait six months after your second shot of Moderna.

Acting FDA Commissioner in a media call on Monday, stating, “If you got J& J, you get a booster after two months. If you got Pfizer as your primary series, you can get a booster at five months or beyond. If you got Moderna, you can get a booster at six months or beyond.”

As the omicron variant continues to be the dominant COVID-19 strain in the US, responsible for nearly 60% of new infections, research indicates that, without a third shot, vaccines are minimally effective against the highly contagious mutation. The good news is that research also indicates the Moderna booster is highly effective in increasing that protection.

Is It The Flu A Cold Or Covid

Does The Flu Shot Affect The COVID Vaccine’s Effectiveness? Dr. Mallika Marshall Answers Your Questi

The common cold, flu, and COVID-19 can all cause similar symptoms. If you have symptoms, talk with your health care provider. Your provider can help determine the cause of your illness and help you take steps to feel better.

A cold is often milder than the flu. The flu and COVID-19 have similar symptoms, but COVID-19 spreads more easily and symptoms tend to be more severe. It’s also more common to have a change in your sense of smell or taste with COVID-19.

People with the flu can have fever, chills, dry cough, general aches and pains, and a headache. They feel very tired. Sore throat, sneezing, stuffy nose, or stomach problems are less common. What some people call “stomach flu” is not influenza. Learn more about the differences between the flu and a cold and flu and COVID-19.

Read Also: When Is The Last Day To Get A Flu Shot

Managing Your Symptoms At Home

If you’re otherwise healthy, you can look after yourself at home by resting, keeping warm and drinking plenty of water to avoid dehydration.

If you’re concerned about coronavirus , be mindful of our ibuprofen advice on the coronavius page.

If you feel unwell and have a fever, you can take paracetamol or anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen to lower your temperature and relieve aches. Children under 16 shouldn’t be given aspirin.

Stay off work or school until you’re feeling better. For most people, this will take about a week. See your GP if your symptoms get worse or last longer than a week.

Read the page on preventing flu for more information about stopping the infection spreading to others.

What Causes The Flu In A Child

The flu is caused by flu viruses. Flu viruses are divided into 3 types:

  • Influenza types A and B. These 2 types of viruses cause widespread illness almost every winter. They often lead to more people needing to go to the hospital, and more people dying from the flu. Public health officials focus on stopping the spread of types A and B. One of the reasons the flu remains a problem is because the viruses change often. This means that people are exposed to new types of the viruses each year.

  • Influenza type C. This type of virus causes a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all. It does not cause epidemics. It does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do.

A flu virus is often passed from child to child through sneezing or coughing. The virus can also live for a short time on surfaces. This includes doorknobs, toys, pens or pencils, keyboards, phones and tablets, and countertops. It can also be passed through shared eating utensils and drinking. Your child can get a flu virus by touching something that was touched by an infected with person, and then touching his or her mouth, nose, or eyes.

Also Check: Is The Flu Shot Good For A Year

How Can I Help Prevent The Flu In My Child

The best way to prevent flu is to have the yearly flu vaccine. The flu vaccine is given as a shot . A nasal spray is not recommended for the 2017-2018 flu season. The CDC says this is because the nasal spray did not seem to protect against the flu over the last several flu seasons.

Each year, a new flu vaccine is available before the start of the flu season. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions about how vaccines work and how well they prevent flu. The first time a child between the ages of 6 months and 8 years gets a flu vaccine, he or she will need a second flu vaccine one month later.

The vaccine is advised for all children 6 months and older. But for some children, its more critical for them to get a flu shot. The flu shot should be given to any child who has any of these:

  • A long-term heart or lung condition

  • An endocrine disorder such as diabetes

  • A kidney or liver disorder

  • Weak immune system from HIV/AIDS or long-term steroids

  • A blood disorder such as sickle cell disease

A flu shot should also be given to:

  • A child who has a family member with a chronic health condition

  • A child or teen taking aspirin as long-term therapy

  • A child with parents or caregivers at high risk of complications from the flu

Some side effects of the vaccine can be like mild flu symptoms, but the vaccine does not cause the flu. Possible side effects of the flu vaccine include:

And you can help prevent your child spreading the flu to others if you:

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