What Are The Symptoms Of Influenza A
If you have influenza A, you will have some or all of these symptoms:
- sore throat and cough
Children may also have abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.
Influenza A is a bit like a very bad cold, but a cold doesn’t usually cause aches and pains or a high fever.
If your symptoms get worse instead of better, it’s best to see a doctor. You should also get help straight away if you feel chest pain, you are short of breath, dizzy or confused, or you are vomiting a lot.
Can Influenza A Be Prevented
Influenza spreads very easily from one person to another. If you have influenza, you should stay at home while you’re sick, cover your face when you sneeze or cough, and regularly wash your hands.
If you are around someone with influenza, you can help avoid getting sick yourself by regularly wiping surfaces they touch, using a cleaning cloth with detergent, and washing your hands.
Getting vaccinated each year before winter arrives is the best way to protect against influenza A. A new vaccine is needed every year because influenza viruses change constantly.
Flu vaccine is available for everyone aged over 6 months. The vaccine is particularly recommended if you are at risk of complications of influenza, or if you live or work with people at high risk of getting the flu.
In Influenza What Type Are The Types Inic Virus Is Influenza B
Humans are the only species of virus in the B influenza family, unlike Type A. In some cases, Type B flu does not cause the same type of severe side effects as Type A flu, but it still carries considerable danger. It is not recommended to classify influenza type B viruses by their subtypes or cause pandemics as they do not pose a threat to human life.
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Urgent Advice: Get Advice From 111 Now If:
- you’re worried about your baby’s or child’s symptoms
- you’re 65 or over
- you’re pregnant
- you have a long-term medical condition for example, diabetes or a heart, lung, kidney or neurological disease
- you have a weakened immune system for example, because of chemotherapy or HIV
- your symptoms do not improve after 7 days
111 will tell you what to do. They can arrange a phone call from a nurse or doctor if you need one.
Go to 111.nhs.uk or call 111.
What Are Influenza Type A Flu And Type B Flu
When it comes to the flu, not all types are created equal. Youâve probably heard that there are a few different types of the flu. According to the CDC, there are three types of influenza viruses: influenza A, influenza B and influenza C.
Influenza A and B are the two main types that routinely spread in humans and cause seasonal flu epidemics. Influenza C viruses cause only mild respiratory infections and are not thought to be responsible for epidemics. 14, 15
Influenza A vs B: Brief History & Transmission
Influenza A viruses are the most harmful, as they can cause severe disease. Wild aquatic birds are often the hosts for a large variety of influenza A viruses. Sometimes these viruses are transmitted from bird to human and can cause devastating outbreaks. Some of the subtypes of influenza A that have caused the largest number of known human deaths are:14, 15
- H1N1, which caused Spanish Flu in 1918 and Swine Flu in 200911
- H2N2, which caused Asian Flu in 195722
- H3N2, which caused Hong Kong Flu in 196833
- H5N1, which caused Bird Flu in 200444
Influenza B almost exclusively infects humans and is less common than influenza A. Flu type B also mutates about two to three times more slowly than influenza A. Because humans are the natural host of influenza B, pandemics generally do not occur with influenza B viruses.22
Signs of Influenza A or Influenza B Symptoms
Influenza A and Influenza B Treatment
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This Winters Flu Season Epidemic Has Started What We Know So Far And What Needs To Be Done To Control It
In the week commencing 13 December the number of flu cases detected in the WHO European Region was above what we would normally expect to find in the population for the second week in a row, which indicates the so-called flu season epidemic has started.
In any given year 515% of the population is affected by influenza, leading to 35 million cases of severe flu and around 650 000 deaths globally.
With COVID-19 also in high transmission across our Region, there is the risk that this so-called twindemic could put excessive pressure on already overstretched health systems.
Here is what we know so far.
How Does The Flu Spread
The flu is contagious, which means it spreads from person to person. It mostly spreads through droplets in the air when people with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. It can spread from up to six feet away. Although it isnt as common, the flu can also spread from surfaces, for example, if you touch something the virus is on and then touch your nose, mouth, or eyes.
It’s possible to spread the flu before you feel sick and when you have symptoms. Typically, people with the flu can spread it a day before, and up to a week after feeling sick. Young children and people with weakened immune systems may be able to spread the flu for even longer. If you or someone you know is sick with the flu, take steps to help prevent spreading the disease.
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What Should Individuals Do
Get vaccinated at the earliest opportunity and when called to do so by their local health authority, particularly if they are in an at-risk group or are working in a health-care environment.
We would also recommend adopting the protective measures that are known to work against COVID-19, such as physical distancing and mask wearing, to help prevent influenza infection of the elderly and those with severe underlying medical conditions.
Effectiveness Of Flu Vaccines
It is too early in the season to be able to make a judgement on the effectiveness of current flu vaccines in protecting against severe illness we simply dont have sufficient data yet. It is possible that that the A vaccine may not be as effective as we would like against the prevalent A viruses, which is why antivirals also need to play a large role in protecting our vulnerable populations.
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What Are The Different Types Of Influenza Virus
There are four different types of influenza virus: A, B, C, and D. Influenza C usually causes only mild illness while D mostly affects animals, especially cattle.
The influenza A and B versions that can infect humans have different proteins and they behave a little differently. Influenza A tends to mutate rapidly while influenza B is stable from year to year, meaning it doesnt change much, explains Joshua Septimus, MD associate professor of clinical medicine at Houston Methodist.
Why Does My Head Hurt With The Flu
When you are suffering from a cold or flu, a headache can form thanks to infection-fighting molecules called cytokines. These little molecules are released by your immune system. While their primary function is to fight off infection, they can bring on inflammation which in turn can cause headache in some people.
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How Serious Is The Flu
Most people who get the flu feel better after a few days to two weeks. However, the flu can be serious, and some people will develop other health issues, called complications, because of the flu. Complications can be mild, such as a sinus or ear infection, or more serious, like pneumonia.
Anyone can get sick from the flu, but some people are more likely to have complications. You are more at risk for flu and its complications if you:
- Are age 65 or older
- Have certain medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease
- Have heart disease or have had a stroke
- Live in a nursing home or other long-term care facility
Pregnant women and children younger than five years old are also more likely to get very sick from the flu. Learn more about people at increased risk for flu and its complications.
Is The Flu Contagious
The flu is very contagious. People can spread it from a day before they feel sick until their symptoms are gone. This is about 1 week for adults, but it can be longer for young kids.
The flu usually happens in annual epidemics. An epidemic is when an illness spreads quickly and infects lots of people in an area at the same time. Some years the epidemic is more severe and widespread than others. An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a pandemic. This is far less common. There were three influenza pandemics in the 20th century, and one so far in the 21st century, in 2009 with influenza A .
During the coronavirus pandemic, experts found that wearing masks can help protect the community from the spread of germs. They recommended that all children age 2 and up wear a mask when out in public or around people who don’t live with them. Wearing masks can also help stop the spread of flu.
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What Are The Types Of Influenza A
As well as infecting people, the influenza A virus can infect animals, including birds and pigs . In some cases, these types of influenza can be passed on to humans.
Bird flu: Avian influenza also known as ‘bird flu’ is a subtype of influenza virus A that mainly affects birds. The virus has caused serious infections in humans and deaths but has not been found in Australia.
Swine flu: This is a type of influenza A virus found in pigs. In 2009, a strain of flu virus known as H1N1 caused the respiratory infection in humans that was commonly referred to as swine flu. It spread rapidly around the world and became a pandemic. The 1918 flu pandemic was also caused by an influenza A H1N1 virus.
How Do You Get Type B Flu
B: Contagiousness. Both influenza A and influenza B are extremely contagious. People who get either type can spread the virus to others from up to six feet away when they cough or sneeze. You can also contract the virus by touching a surface that has the virus on it and then touching your nose or mouth.
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What Is Ecdc Doing
Each week during the influenza season ECDC, in collaboration with WHO/Europe, collects and analyses influenza surveillance data from Member States and publishes a weekly Flu News Europe bulletin.
The bulletin provides public health officials and decision-makers in Member States with the information required to assess influenza activity in the Region and helps them make decisions on appropriate actions to prepare their health systems and protect the populations most likely to be affected.
Monitoring influenza virus circulation across the Region also informs WHO/Europes recommendations on the composition of vaccines, thus increasing as much as possible their effectiveness against the virus types predicted to be in widespread circulation.
Common Symptoms Of A Cold The Flu And Covid
The chart below shows common symptoms. Not everyone will have these symptoms. Your symptoms may be more or less severe, or you may only have a few. If you feel sick, stay home and call your doctor
- Covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze
- Staying home when you are sick
- Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
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How Are Influenza A And B Transmitted
Like SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, both flu A and B spread from person to person, up to a distance of about six feet. The virus passes through droplets expelled when you sneeze, cough, or even just talk. You can also get the flu by touching something that has the virus on it then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes, but this isnt as common.
You can start spreading the virus a day before you have symptoms but youre most contagious in the first three or four days after symptoms appear.
You can also pass on the virus for up to a week after the flu symptomsheadaches, aches, and other symptomshave disappeared. Both A and B are just as contagious and just as easy to spread, says Dr. Oller.
Why Is The Flu More Dangerous For Older Adults
The flu is more dangerous for older adults for a few reasons. One reason is that the immune system which helps your body fight infections weakens as you age. For example, because your body is busy fighting off the flu, you might pick up a second infection such as pneumonia. A second reason is that older adults are also more likely to have other health conditions, like diabetes, that increase their risk for complications from the flu.
The good news is the flu vaccination reduces your risk of getting the flu and of getting seriously ill if you do get sick with the flu. Flu vaccination is especially helpful for people with chronic health conditions. For example, it has been linked to lower rates of heart problems among people with heart disease and fewer hospitalizations among people who have chronic lung disease or diabetes. Learn more about the benefits of flu vaccination.
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How To Avoid Spreading The Flu
Flu is very infectious and easily spread to other people. You’re more likely to give it to others in the first 5 days.
Flu is spread by germs from coughs and sneezes, which can live on hands and surfaces for 24 hours.
To reduce the risk of spreading flu:
- wash your hands often with warm water and soap
- use tissues to trap germs when you cough or sneeze
- bin used tissues as quickly as possible
What Is Bird Flu Heres How The Avian Influenza Spreads
Officially called avian influenza, bird flu is the disease caused by an infection with bird flu viruses. As explained by the CDC, wild marine birds are hosts for bird flu viruses, and this virus typically spreads between them, as well as from them to farmed birds like chickens, ducks, and turkeys.
When a bird is infected, they can spread influenza A viruses via their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces if another bird comes into contact with the virus via one of these secretions, or a surface contaminated with the virus, they can become infected, too. In birds, the avian flu is highly contagious, and can cause serious illness and death.
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Who Should You Get A Flu Vaccine And Which One Should You Choose
Flu typically spreads in the fall and winter. It usually starts to spread in October and peaks between December and February. That’s why this time is called the flu season.
It takes at least two weeks for your flu vaccine to start working, so try to get vaccinated by the end of October. However, getting vaccinated after October can still help protect you from the flu. Because older adults may lose immunity from a flu vaccine more quickly, try to avoid getting vaccinated too early .
Several flu vaccines are available. There are also two types of high-dose vaccinations specifically for people 65 years and older that create a stronger immune response after vaccination. Talk with your health care provider or pharmacist about which vaccine is best for you.
Check If You Have Flu
Flu symptoms come on very quickly and can include:
- a sudden high temperature of 38C or above
- an aching body
- diarrhoea or tummy pain
- feeling sick and being sick
The symptoms are similar for children, but they can also get pain in their ear and appear less active.
Cold and flu symptoms are similar, but flu tends to be more severe.
|Appears quickly within a few hours||Appears gradually|
|Affects more than just your nose and throat||Affects mainly your nose and throat|
|Makes you feel exhausted and too unwell to carry on as normal||Makes you feel unwell, but you’re OK to carry on as normal|
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What Is The Bird Flu
The avian influenza virus causes bird flu. Birds can be infected by influenza A viruses and all of its subtypes. Birds are not capable of carrying either type B or C influenza viruses.
There are three main subtypes of avian flu, including H5, H7, and H9. The subtypes H5 and H7 are the most deadly, while the H9 subtype is less dangerous.
Subtypes Of The Influenza A Virus
Influenza A is further divided into different subtypes. These subtypes are based off of the combination of two proteins on the viral surface: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase . There are 18 different H subtypes and 11 different N subtypes.
For example, the most common influenza A subtypes that go around seasonally in humans are H1N1 and H3N2. In 2017, H3N2 spread to dogs in Florida. In 2015, this same strain also infected dogs in an earlier outbreak in Chicago.
Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into strains.
Unlike influenza A, influenza B isnt further divided into subtypes. But it can be broken down further into specific viral lineages and strains.
The naming of influenza virus strains is complex. It includes information such as:
- influenza type
- species of origin
- geographical origin
approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in late 2018.
The zanamivir, oseltamivir, and peramivir medications noted above work by reducing the ability of the virus to release itself from infected cells. The newer drug, baloxavir marboxil works by reducing the ability of the virus to replicate.
These antiviral medications are most effective when started within the first 48 hours of your illness. Theyre ineffective in treating illness caused by influenza C.
Over-the-counter medications can be taken to relieve nasal congestion, fever, and aches and pains.
Getting lots of rest, eating a healthy diet, and drinking plenty of fluids helps your body fight the virus as well.
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