The Vaccine Everyone Was Waiting For Polio Vaccine
Parents were scared of the polio epidemics that occurred each summer they kept their children away from swimming pools, sent them to stay with relatives in the country, and clamored for an understanding of the spread of polio. They waited for a vaccine, closely following vaccine trials and sending dimes to the White House to help the cause. When the polio vaccine was licensed in 1955, the country celebrated, and Jonas Salk, its inventor, became an overnight hero.
Late 1950s | Recommended Vaccines
* Given in combination as DTP
Concerns About Side Effects
If the side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent, or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.
Immunisation side effects may be reported to the SAEFVAC, the central reporting service in Victoria on 1300 882 924 .
You can discuss how to report problems in other states or territories with your immunisation provider.
The symptoms of COVID-19 and flu can be similar.
If you are unwell with flu-like symptoms, contact the COVID-19 hotline on 1800 675 398 or your GP to check if you require COVID-19 testing.
Im Pregnant Is It Safe To Get The Flu Shot
Yes, the flu shot is safe. Those who are pregnant should be immunized. Infants born during flu season to mothers who got a flu shot are usually protected against the flu for a few months. The flu shot is also safe and highly recommended for those breastfeeding. Since infants less than 6 months of age cannot get the flu shot , antibodies against the flu are transferred through breast milk.
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Symptoms And Causative Agent
Influenza is a respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. There are three main types of influenza viruses , but many strains of each type. Type A and B are of public health concern, while type C causes a mild form of the disease and has not been associated with outbreaks. The diseases caused by these viruses are often collectively referred to as the flu.
Illness from influenza can range from mild to severe, depending on several factors, including the viral strain, the patients age, and the patients health. Certain groups are at higher risk for serious complications from the flu.
Symptoms of the flu tend to emerge suddenly, including fever, chills, coughing, sore throat, achiness, headaches, and fatigue. Vomiting and diarrhea may also occur, but these symptoms are more common for children than adults.
Vaccinations: The Expanding Role Of Pharmacists
Yvette C. Terrie, BSPharm, RPhPharmacy Times
Vaccine-preventable diseases kill more Americans than breast cancer, HIV/AIDS, or traffic accidents. Pharmacists are in a unique position to counsel patients about vaccines and administer them to target groups.
Ms. Terrie is a clinical pharmacy writer based in Haymarket, Virginia.
The word vaccine is derived from the Latin word vaccinus, which means pertaining to cows and originates from a procedure developed by Edward Jenner in 1796, in which he scraped the scabs from cowpox lesions on a milkmaids hand into a cut on a young boys skin, which resulted in the boys immunity to smallpox.1-3
This discovery initiated the vaccine era, although almost a century had passed before the next vaccine, which protected against rabies, was introduced. 3 Vaccines are considered to be one of the most cost-effective preventive measures against certain diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared vaccinations to be one of the top 10 public health achievements of the 20th century vaccinations have saved millions of lives since their introduction more than 200 years ago.3-5
– Improving both the quality and quantity of the delivery of vaccination services
– Minimizing financial burdens for needy persons
– Increasing community awareness, participation, education, and partnership
– Improving disease monitoring and vaccination coverage
– Developing new or improved vaccines and improving the use of vaccines
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Possible Side Effects Of The Flu Vaccine
The influenza vaccine can cause side effects. In children under 5 years, these reactions may be more obvious.
Common side effects of influenza vaccine include:
- drowsiness or tiredness
- localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
- occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks but needs no treatment
- low-grade temperature .
Is The Flu Vaccine Safe
Yes. Flu vaccines have been used for over 50 years and have been safely given to hundreds of millions of people, including pregnant people. Flu vaccines, like all vaccines used in the U.S., are carefully monitored for safety through the U.S. vaccine monitoring systems .
Find answers to more questions about vaccine safety.
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Why Is The Flu Vaccine Recommended
While the flu vaccine isn’t 100% effective, it still greatly reduces a person’s chances of catching the flu, which can be very serious. It also can make symptoms less severe if someone does still get the flu after immunization.
Even if you or your kids got the flu vaccine last year, that won’t protect you this year, because flu viruses change. That’s why the vaccine is updated each year to include the most current types of the virus.
Sometimes the same types are included in the vaccine one year after the next. Even then, it’s still important to get the yearly flu vaccine because the body’s immunity against the influenza virus declines over time.
The Sixties: Split Vaccines
New inactivated compounds were tested for safety and efficacy during seasonal epidemics in the 1960s, in particular two new formulations were created: split and subunit vaccines. The 1968 pandemic led to the development of trivalent inactivated vaccines against influenza viruses moreover the development of new split or subunit vaccines led to a decrease of adverse reactions in children. These vaccines were split using ether and/or detergent, and haemagglutinin and neuraminidase were, in the case of subunit vaccines, purified and enriched .
In the same period, the first flu vaccines were licensed in Europe, while in the US annual influenza vaccination was recommended for individuals at major risk of influenza complications.
In 1968, the new virus strain H3N2 appeared, completely replacing the previous type A strain , and led to another global pandemic with high morbidity and mortality . In the same year, a new type of vaccine, the split vaccine, was authorized in the US after several clinical studies had demonstrated that it was less reactogenic than whole virus vaccines, especially in the early years of life .
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The Flu In Recent Years
Over time, Australia has become better at weathering each flu season. Government programs to improve accessibility to the flu vaccine for the elderly and young children ensure that more people are vaccinated. Growing acceptance of the flu vaccine and corporate programs to inoculate their workforce have also assisted in reducing the number of infected and annual deaths from the flu.
2017 Flu Deaths in Australia
Get your flu shot!
Avoiding the flu should be high on everyones agenda this flu season. Save yourself the wasted time and the days of feeling terrible with a simple jab right at the start of the season.
Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines
In the period 1935-1941, the first clinical trials involving live attenuated influenza vaccines were conducted. The efficacy of these seasonal vaccines was guaranteed by the correspondence between the circulating strain and the strain contained in the vaccine and by the virus dose grown in hen egg embryos .
In 1944, Stanley described in detail the preparation and properties of an influenza virus vaccine produced in embryonated hen eggs this vaccine was concentrated and purified by means of differential centrifugation and inactivated by means of various procedures .
In 1949, an important change in vaccine development involved the introduction of the use of cell cultures for virus growth.
In 1997,the so-called “avian flu” pandemic broke out in Hong Kong. This was caused by influenza virus A/ H5N1, a highly pathogenic strain.
In order to contain this pandemic, the techniques of genetic rearrangement developed in those years enabled a huge number of vaccine doses to be produced in a short time by applying recombinant DNA technology to the influenza A/H5N1 virus .
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Influenza Vaccination: A Summary For Clinicians
Everyone 6 months of age and older should get an influenza vaccine every season with rare exception. CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has made this recommendation since the 2010-2011 flu season.
Vaccination to prevent flu and its potentially serious complications is particularly important for people who are at higher risk of developing serious flu complications. See People at Higher Risk of Developing Flu-Related Complications for a full list of age and health factors that confer increased risk.
More information is available at Who Needs a Flu Vaccine.
CDC recommends use of any licensed, age-appropriate influenza vaccine during the 2021-2022 influenza season. Available influenza vaccines include quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine , recombinant influenza vaccine , or live attenuated influenza vaccine . No preference is expressed for any influenza vaccine over another.
Quadrivalent flu vaccines include:
For the 2021-2022 flu season, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends annual influenza vaccination for everyone 6 months and older with any licensed, influenza vaccine that is appropriate for the recipients age and health status, including inactivated influenza vaccine , recombinant influenza vaccine , or live attenuated nasal spray influenza vaccine with no preference expressed for any one vaccine over another.
For more information visit Flu & Young Children.
Is The Flu Dangerous For Pregnant People
Yes. Flu can be very dangerous for pregnant people and their babies. The changes in immune, heart and lung function during pregnancy make you more likely to get seriously ill from the flu. If you get the flu while pregnant, it also increases your chance for complications, such as premature labor and delivery, and birth defects.
Getting a flu shot during your pregnancy helps protect both you and your baby. When you get vaccinated, your body makes antibodies that are passed to your baby, which helps protect them during their first few months of life, before they are able to start getting their own annual flu vaccinations.
Flu shots have safely been given to millions of people, including pregnant people, over many years. Numerous studies show that the flu vaccine is safe and effective for pregnant people and their babies.Pregnancy experts strongly recommend that all pregnant people get a flu shot. You can safely get the flu shot during any trimester.
Click here to view/download VYFs handout Flu Vaccination During Pregnancy.Learn more about flu and other vaccines recommended during pregnancy.
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Russian Or Asiatic Flu In Canada
The Russian or Asiatic flu began in the Eurasian Steppes, spread across Russia and Europe and arrived in northeastern North America in December 1889. By 1890, it had reached Canada, including the cities of Montréal, Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa, London, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Although less lethal than the 1918 Spanish flu, some experts believe that exposure to the 1890 flu made patients more susceptible to severe outcomes during the 1918 pandemic.The theory centres on the concept of original antigenic sin, which suggests that for rapidly changing viruses such as influenza, the body may rely on antibodies developed in response to an earlier strain, thus compromising its response to the new virus.
Vaccines For Adults Increasing Opportunities For Health
Historically, vaccines were deemed to be only for children. However, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary. Most adults think only of the tetanus booster recommended every 10 years and even then, many adults only get the vaccine if they injure themselves. In 2005, the Tdap vaccine was licensed as an improved version of the typical tetanus booster, Td. The newer version also contains a component to protect against pertussis . All adults, especially those who are going to be around young infants, should get the Tdap vaccine. Adults often unwittingly pass pertussis to young infants for whom the disease can be fatal. In 2012, the CDC recommended that pregnant women get a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy between 27 and 36 weeks gestation. In 2019, the CDC recommended that Tdap or Td vaccine could be used for booster dosing every 10 years.
Influenza vaccines, available since the 1940s, are now recommended for most adults. Vaccines like MMR and chickenpox are recommended for adults who have not had the diseases, and vaccines including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcus, and meningococcus are recommended for sub-groups of the adult population. The HPV vaccine became available in 2006. In 2018, the license was expanded to include people up to 45 years of age.
The first formal adult immunization schedule was published in 2002 and is updated annually.
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What Are Indications For The Nasal
Healthy people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant may get the nasal spray vaccine. The term FluMist is another name for the seasonal flu nasal spray vaccine. LAIV4 does not contain thimerosal or other preservatives. According to the CDC, the following people should not get the nasal-spray vaccine and note current CDC recommendations:
- People less than 2 years of age
- People 50 years of age and over
- People with a medical condition that places them at high risk for complications from influenza, including those with chronic heart disease like history of a heart attack or lung disease, such as asthma or reactive airways disease
- People with medical conditions such as diabetes or kidney failure
- People with illnesses that weaken the immune system or who take medications that can weaken the immune system
- Children < 5 years of age with a history of recurrent wheezing
- Children or adolescents receiving aspirin therapy
- Pregnant women
- People who are allergic to any of the components of the nasal-spray vaccine
- It is important to note that if the vaccine’s recipient sneezes immediately after administration, the dose should not be repeated.
Please see the two extensive tables in reference 1 for details about all vaccines approved for use in the United States against the flu for the 2020-2021season. You should discuss which flu vaccine is best for you with your doctor.
Measles Mumps And Rubella
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella are viral infections that have each caused widespread, deadly disease outbreaks. Throughout the 1960s, individual vaccines were developed for each of them, but a decade later, they were combined into one.
Measles was the first of the three to receive its own vaccine in 1963, followed by mumps in 1967, and rubella in 1969. Two years later, in 1971, Maurice Hilleman of the Merck Institute of Therapeutic Research developed a combined vaccination that would provide immunity for all three viruses.
Hilleman was credited with creating the first measles and mumps vaccine, and began researching ways to incorporate a system of immunity for each virus. Using his previous research and a rubella vaccine developed by Stanley Plotkin in 1969, he created the first successful MMR vaccine in just two years.
According to the CDC, “One dose of MMR vaccine is 93% effective against measles, 78% effective against mumps, and 97% effective against rubella.”
“Two doses of MMR vaccine are 97% effective against measles and 88% effective against mumps.”
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Does The Flu Spread Between Species
Because it circulates among so many different types of animals, influenza A has the potential to spread from one species to another. This transfer may happen through contact between different species and sometimes involves a process called reassortment. Reassortment occurs when different viruses mix their genes. For example, if a pig was infected with both a bird flu and a human flu strain, those two viruses could mix and create a new virus. This type of abrupt, major change in the influenza A virus is called antigenic shift. In rare cases, antigenic shifts can cause influenza pandemics, as the new virus would contain surface proteins previously unseen in human viruses. As a result, humans would not be immune, creating the potential for an influenza pandemic. However, transmission of influenza A from animals to humans through contact or reassortment is rare.
Rapid Response To Pandemic Flu
The rapid development, production, and distribution of pandemic influenza vaccines could potentially save millions of lives during an influenza pandemic. Due to the short time frame between identification of a pandemic strain and need for vaccination, researchers are looking at novel technologies for vaccine production that could provide better “real-time” access and be produced more affordably, thereby increasing access for people living in low- and moderate-income countries, where an influenza pandemic may likely originate, such as live attenuated technology and recombinant technologies . As of July 2009, more than seventy known clinical trials have been completed or are ongoing for pandemic influenza vaccines. In September 2009, the FDA approved four vaccines against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus , and expected the initial vaccine lots to be available within the following month.
In January 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Audenz as a vaccine for the H5N1 flu virus. Audenz is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine. Audenz is approved for use in persons six months of age and older at increased risk of exposure to the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine.
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