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When Was The Cure For The Flu Found

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What Types Of Specialists Treat Bird Flu

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Veterinarians and poultry workers usually treat bird flu in commercial outbreaks. In rare human outbreaks, primary care physicians, pediatricians, and emergency medicine specialists may initially treat patients but individuals with severe complications may be treated by infectious disease specialists, critical care specialists, hospitalists, and pulmonologists.

  • eye infections .

Children get similar symptoms. This viral infection can progress to pneumonia and even respiratory failure. Bird flu causes a very aggressive form of pneumonia that is often fatal.

How Long Do Omicron Symptoms Last

While the omicron variant is infecting more people than COVID-19 ever has in the U.S., most people who catch the virus are experiencing pretty mild symptoms and avoiding hospitalization, especially those who are fully vaccinated and boosted. But just like with the variants that came before it, how long omicron symptoms last varies from person to person.

Those with a mild case of COVID-19 usually recover within one to two weeks, said Dr. Lisa Maragakis in an article for Johns Hopkins Medicine.

The most common early symptoms are a runny nose, headache, fatigue, sneezing, and a sore throat, research out of the U.K. found. These omicron symptoms often feel like a cold, but there could also be coughing and flu-like symptoms, including fever and body, aches.

Exactly how long those symptoms last is highly individualized and depends on many factors like your age, vaccination status, overall health, and how much rest you get while sick. For some people with especially mild COVID cases, these symptoms resolve in as little as five days, allowing them to end isolation.

Background On The Research

What research does the Science article describe? Why is it important?

Read more on how an expert group of researchers and virus hunters located the lost 1918 virus, sequenced its genome, and reconstructed the virus in a highly safe and regulated laboratory setting at CDC to study its secrets and better prepare for future pandemics.

This report describes the successful reconstruction of the influenza A virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and provides new information about the properties that contributed to its exceptional virulence. This information is critical to evaluating the effectiveness of current and future public health interventions, which could be used in the event that a 1918-like virus reemerges. The knowledge from this work may also shed light on the pathogenesis of contemporary human influenza viruses with pandemic potential. The natural emergence of another pandemic virus is considered highly likely by many experts, and therefore insights into pathogenic mechanisms can and are contributing to the development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions needed to prepare for future pandemic viruses.

What are the reasons for doing these experiments?
Who funded the work described in this article?
When did CDC begin research on the 1918 virus?
Could a 1918-like H1N1 virus re-emerge and cause a pandemic again?
Are current antivirals and vaccines effective against the 1918 H1N1 virus?

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Risk Factors For Swine Flu

When it first emerged, swine flu was most common in children 5 years and older and young adults. This was unusual because most flu virus infections are a higher risk for complications in older adults or the very young. Today, risk factors for getting swine flu are the same as for any other strain of the flu. Youre most at risk if you spend time in an area with a large number of people who are infected with swine flu.

Some people are at higher risk for becoming seriously ill if theyre infected with swine flu. These groups include:

  • adults over age 65

Aspirin Poisoning And The Flu

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With no cure for the flu, many doctors prescribed medication that they felt would alleviate symptoms including aspirin, which had been trademarked by Bayer in 1899a patent that expired in 1917, meaning new companies were able to produce the drug during the Spanish Flu epidemic.

Before the spike in deaths attributed to the Spanish Flu in 1918, the U.S. Surgeon General, Navy and the Journal of the American Medical Association had all recommended the use of aspirin. Medical professionals advised patients to take up to 30 grams per day, a dose now known to be toxic. Symptoms of aspirin poisoning include hyperventilation and pulmonary edema, or the buildup of fluid in the lungs, and its now believed that many of the October deaths were actually caused or hastened by aspirin poisoning.

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How The Flu Spreads

The flu spreads several ways: through airborne coughs or sneezes, through touching contaminated surfaces like doorknobs or keyboards, through contact like handshakes or hugs and from saliva shared through drinks or kissing. If you become sick, consider working or studying from home while recovering, as going to work or school can spread the disease to others.

Us Patients Have A New Option For Helping To Relieve Flu Symptoms

The FDA approved the antiviral peramivir for the relief of flu symptoms,including cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, headache, feverishness, muscle aches and fatigue.

Unlike other drugs of its kind, its taken intravenously and only requires one dose. The medication is available to patients admitted to the Emergency Department who may not be candidates for oral treatment, including those who are severely dehydrated, have swallowing issues or who do not have a fully functioning gastrointestinal tract.

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Which Children Are At Risk For The Flu

A child is more at risk for the flu if he or she:

  • Is around people infected with the flu

  • Has not had the flu vaccine

  • Does not wash his or her hands after touching infected surfaces

Young children and children with certain underlying health conditions are at increased risk for a hospital stay or severe or complicated influenza infection.

Researchers Unveil The First Trivalent Vaccine

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The first trivalent , egg-cultured flu vaccine was created, containing two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain, which were the most common strains in circulation at the time.

This was the first time a single vaccine was able to protect against three different strains of the flu, and this type of vaccine is still given today.

Currently, the World Health Organization recommends the composition of influenza vaccines each year, based on the results of its global influenza surveillance, which helps the organization predict the strains most likely to circulate in the coming flu season.

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The Origins Of The Open

By the time of the 19181919 pandemic, it was common practice to put the sick outside in tents or in specially designed open wards. Among the first advocates of what was later to become known as the open-air method was the English physician John Coakley Lettsom , who exposed children suffering from tuberculosis to sea air and sunshine at the Royal Sea Bathing Hospital in Kent, England, in 1791., Lettsom’s enthusiasm for fresh air attracted little support at the time, and the next doctor to recommend it met with fierce opposition. George Bodington was the proprietor of the first institution that could be described as a tuberculosis sanatorium, at Sutton Coldfield near Birmingham, England. He treated pulmonary tuberculosis with a combination of fresh air, gentle exercise in the open, a nutritious, varied diet, and the minimum of medicines.

Bodington had noticed that people who spent their time indoors were susceptible to tuberculosis, whereas those who worked outdoors, such as farmers, shepherds, and plowmen, were usually free of the disease. He reasoned that patients should copy the lifestyles of those who appeared immune to tuberculosis. They should live in well-ventilated houses in the country and spend much of their time outside breathing fresh air. According to Bodington,

If It Just Affects Birds Why The Panic

It doesnt. World Health Organization figures show that from 2003 to 2021 there were 863 confirmed cases of the H5N1 virus in humans. Of these cases, 456 people died. While transmission is rare, it has happened.

So far, most of the human deaths have been in countries in Asia, in communities in which people live in close proximity to poultry. Although it does not easily infect humans, every time it does it increases the chance that the virus could mutate into a form that could be passed from one infected human to another. The WHO fears this could lead to a flu pandemic.

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Reporting Suspected Cases Of Bird Flu

Bird flu is a notifiable disease in animals, so you should report any suspected case in animals to the Animal and Plant Health Agency , even if you’re not sure.

Call the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs helpline on 03459 33 55 77 if you find dead wild birds.

To prevent infection it is important not to touch or pick up any dead or visibly sick birds that you find.

Can Influenza A Be Prevented

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Influenza spreads very easily from one person to another. If you have influenza, you should stay at home while you’re sick, cover your face when you sneeze or cough, and regularly wash your hands.

If you are around someone with influenza, you can help avoid getting sick yourself by regularly wiping surfaces they touch, using a cleaning cloth with detergent, and washing your hands.

Getting vaccinated each year before winter arrives is the best way to protect against influenza A. A new vaccine is needed every year because influenza viruses change constantly.

Flu vaccine is available for everyone aged over 6 months. The vaccine is particularly recommended if you are at risk of complications of influenza, or if you live or work with people at high risk of getting the flu.

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Who Can Donate Plasma For Covid

In order to donate plasma, a person must meet several criteria. They have to have tested positive for COVID-19, recovered, have no symptoms for 14 days, currently test negative for COVID-19, and have high enough antibody levels in their plasma. A donor and patient must also have compatible blood types. Once plasma is donated, it is screened for other infectious diseases, such as HIV.

Each donor produces enough plasma to treat one to three patients. Donating plasma should not weaken the donor’s immune system nor make the donor more susceptible to getting reinfected with the virus.

What Is Avian Flu

Avian influenza, also known as bird flu, is a contagious viral disease in animals, caused by a virus loosely related to human influenza. Some strains of the disease have been passed to humans but this is very rare, and usually occurs only after very close contact with infected birds or animals. While all bird species and, less commonly, pigs are thought to be susceptible, domestic poultry flocks are especially vulnerable to infection. Outbreaks can rapidly result in epidemics among bird populations. Public health authorities are concerned about the potential of the virus to mutate into subtypes capable of causing human disease. As a result they warn there is always a threat of a new influenza pandemic emerging.

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What Are The Differences And Similarities Between The Spanish Flu And Covid

The Spanish flu and COVID-19 viruses arent the same. They are similar in that they’re both respiratory viruses spread through breathing in infected respiratory droplets. In addition, they both did and can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome . They are also similar in the ways that governments tried to fight them:

  • Avoiding delays in diagnosis.
  • Protective clothing like masks and gloves.
  • Hygiene practices like thorough hand washing.

COVID-19 has killed as many people in the U.S. as the Spanish flu did. But the population of the U.S. is now three times more than it was in 1918, so Spanish flu killed a larger percentage of Americans than COVID-19 has to date. If we look at the cause of death, people who had Spanish flu generally died from pneumonia and people who had COVID-19 died from multiple organ failure. Even in the case of people who developed ARDS after infection by each virus, the fatality rate was 100% for Spanish flu, as compared to 53.4% for COVID-19 because there were no treatments for infected individuals. The Spanish flu was also more deadly to healthy younger people, while COVID-19 has mostly affected people who are 65 years or older who have other diseases until the delta variant, which is infecting younger and healthier people more than prior COVID-19 variants.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 09/21/2021.


What Made The Spanish Flu So Deadly

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Some of the reasons why the Spanish flu killed so many people include:

  • The lack of effective treatment, due in part to the unknown cause at the time.
  • The cramped living arrangements of animals and people, especially the military, during World War I.
  • The lack of healthcare providers. A significant percentage of doctors were off fighting in the war.
  • The exceptional ability of the virus to copy itself and infect the lungs. This last feature was found during research into the 1918 virus, using tissue found in people who had died from the Spanish flu.

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What Are Risk Factors For Bird Flu

Humans may get bird flu from contact with infected birds or their infected droppings and secretions. Risk factors include caring for sick birds, killing sick birds, and preparing sick birds for consumption. Despite the large number of people who have contact with poultry every day in the world, human cases of bird flu remain rare. This highlights how difficult it is for the bird flu virus to infect human cells, but mutations like antigenic shifts may reduce such difficulties. The H1N1 pandemic that started in Mexico is an example of such a mutation .

Although direct contact with sick poultry poses the highest risk for bird flu, indirect exposure to bird feces or other materials such as bird eggs is also a risk. Contact with unwashed eggs from sick birds or water contaminated by poultry feces poses a potential risk of disease.

Flu Vaccine: A Moving Target

Shortly after scientists identified the influenza A virus, researchers began work on creating a flu vaccine, with the first clinical trials commencing in the mid-1930s.

Given the high death toll of World War I soldiers to the flu, the U.S. military was highly interested in a flu vaccine. During World War II, U.S. soldiers were part of field tests on the safety and efficacy of the new vaccine.

But during these 19421945 tests, scientists discovered influenza type B, necessitating a new bivalent vaccine that protects against both H1N1 and the influenza B virus.

After the Asian flu pandemic arose in 1957, a new vaccine protecting against H2N2 was developed. WHO monitored the circulating influenza virus strains in various countries to determine which flu vaccine would be needed in an upcoming season.

During the 1978 pandemic, scientists developed the first trivalent flu vaccine, which protected against one strain of influenza A/H1N1, one strain of influenza virus A/H3N2 and a type B virus. Most U.S.-licensed seasonal flu vaccines since then have been trivalent.

In 2012, the first quadrivalent flu vaccine that protects against an additional influenza B virus was approved for use.

Scientists at WHO and its collaborating centers determine which strains to vaccinate against based on how the viruses have mutated in the past year and how they are spreading, with different vaccines needed for the Northern and Southern hemisphere.

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Why Was The Spanish Flu Called The Spanish Flu

The Spanish Flu did not originate in Spain, though news coverage of it did. During World War I, Spain was a neutral country with a free media that covered the outbreak from the start, first reporting on it in Madrid in late May of 1918. Meanwhile, Allied countries and the Central Powers had wartime censors who covered up news of the flu to keep morale high. Because Spanish news sources were the only ones reporting on the flu, many believed it originated there

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What Measures Is The Uk Taking

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The government has said the chief veterinary officers for each of the UKs constituent nations have agreed to bring in new housing measures to protect poultry and captive birds from avian influenza following a number of confirmed cases across Great Britain in recent weeks. It added: The new housing measures, which will come into force on Monday 29 November, mean that it will be a legal requirement for all bird keepers across the UK to keep their birds indoors and to follow strict biosecurity measures in order to limit the spread of and eradicate the disease.

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What Is The Flu

Influenza is a viral respiratory infection that causes symptoms similar to, but more severe than, the common cold. Flu symptoms can include sudden onset fever, cough, runny or stuffy nose and severe malaise .

The flu can also sometimes cause vomiting, diarrhea and nausea, , but the flu is primarily a respiratory disease and not a stomach or intestinal disease.

Symptoms develop 1 to 4 days after contracting the virus. Most people recover within 2 weeks without medical treatment, but the flu can cause serious complications, including pneumonia, bronchitis and sinus and ear infections.

The flu season typically lasts from late fall to spring. Each year, flu epidemics cause 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 290,000 to 650,000 deaths around the globe, according to the World Health Organization .

During recent years in the United States, between 12,000 and 56,000 people have died annually from the flu, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

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