Saturday, September 30, 2023

Where Does The Flu Come From

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How Is The Flu Diagnosed

Where Do New Viruses Come From?

To diagnose the flu, health care providers will first do a medical history and ask about your symptoms. There are several tests for the flu. For the tests, your provider will swipe the inside of your nose or the back of your throat with a swab. Then the swab will be tested for the flu virus.

Some tests are quick and give results in 15-20 minutes. But these tests are not as accurate as other flu tests. These other tests can give you the results in one hour or several hours.

Conditions That Cause A Buildup

Most healthy people are unaware that they are continually producing and swallowing mucus.

Several health issues can cause mucus to build up, either by stimulating excessive production, blocking or reducing mucus elimination, or causing the mucus to thicken.

Factors associated with mucus buildups include:

  • allergies, especially to dairy

The best way to clear a buildup depends on the underlying cause and contributing factors.

Common home care strategies include:

  • using an over-the-counter saline nasal spray
  • taking OTC nondrowsy decongestants or antihistamines
  • rubbing a product that contains eucalyptus oil on the chest and throat or inhaling it
  • avoiding all allergens, including those in foods
  • gently pounding or tapping on the back and chest repeatedly to loosen the mucus
  • adding humidity to the air using a humidifier or taking a warm shower or bath
  • applying a warm, moist washcloth over the face
  • covering the nose with a scarf in cold weather
  • not smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke

Many natural products can reduce mucus buildups or treat the respiratory conditions that cause them. Natural remedies with some scientific backing include:

  • licorice root

Why Is The Flu More Dangerous For Older Adults

The flu is more dangerous for older adults for a few reasons. One reason is that the immune system which helps your body fight infections weakens as you age. For example, because your body is busy fighting off the flu, you might pick up a second infection such as pneumonia. A second reason is that older adults are also more likely to have other health conditions, like diabetes, that increase their risk for complications from the flu.

The good news is the flu vaccination reduces your risk of getting the flu and of getting seriously ill if you do get sick with the flu. Flu vaccination is especially helpful for people with chronic health conditions. For example, it has been linked to lower rates of heart problems among people with heart disease and fewer hospitalizations among people who have chronic lung disease or diabetes. Learn more about the benefits of flu vaccination.

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Disease Specific Treatment And Prophylaxis

Although vaccination is the preferred option for preventing influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine fails or is unavailable, for example, due to: antigenic mismatch with circulating virus, waning immunity in elderly, patient being immunocompromised, the vaccine not yet available, or during an outbreak of an emerging influenza strain or pandemic.

Neuraminidase inhibitors, oral oseltamivir and inhaled zanamivir, are useful for treatment and prophylactic use. Since 1999 inhaled zanamivir is authorised in all EU/EEA Member States except Cyprus, and since 2002 oral oseltamivir is authorised in all EU Member States.

The use of these drugs is very variable between European countries , as are the policies.

For the best clinical benefit, treatment with antivirals should be given early in the infection, within 48 hours, . However, at least one observational study of Apdm09 found improved survival in the severely ill when antiviral treatment was provided within five days of symptom onset .

How To Prevent The Flu

Can The Flu Come Back

The elderly, young children, pregnant women, people with chronic disease and those with compromised immune systems are more likely to get the flu. The CDC says the flu vaccine is the most effective way to prevent the flu, though it is not foolproof. Avoiding close contact with sick individuals, covering coughs and sneezes, and washing your hands often can help prevent the flu. Once someone has contracted the flu, doctors can prescribe antiviral medication to shorten the illness and decrease symptoms.

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Antigenic Drift And Shift

Two key processes that influenza viruses evolve through are antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Antigenic drift is when an influenza virus’s antigens change due to the gradual accumulation of mutations in the antigen’s gene. This can occur in response to evolutionary pressure exerted by the host immune response. Antigenic drift is especially common for the HA protein, in which just a few amino acid changes in the head region can constitute antigenic drift. The result is the production of novel strains that can evade pre-existing antibody-mediated immunity. Antigenic drift occurs in all influenza species but is slower in B than A and slowest in C and D. Antigenic drift is a major cause of seasonal influenza, and requires that flu vaccines be updated annually. HA is the main component of inactivated vaccines, so surveillance monitors antigenic drift of this antigen among circulating strains. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses of humans appears to be faster than influenza viruses in swine and equines. In wild birds, within-subtype antigenic variation appears to be limited but has been observed in poultry.

What Causes The Flu

The flu is caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. These viruses spread when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk, sending droplets with the virus into the air and potentially into the mouths or noses of people who are nearby. You can also get flu by touching a surface or object that has flu virus on it and then touching your own mouth, eyes or nose.

You can spread the flu before you know you are sick, beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 5 to 7 days after becoming sick. Some people, especially young children and people with weakened immune systems, might be able to infect others for an even longer time.

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What Are The Symptoms

Tomato flu gets its name from the rashes it causes, in the form of “round” and “red blisters”, reports

The Indian Express

They are present all over the body and are particularly painful and contagious.

Mouth irritations are also observed, due to the dehydration that goes hand in hand with the fever, vomiting and diarrhea observed by Indian doctors.

Testimonials also mention joint pain.

When Are The Main Jubilee Events

Where Do New Viruses Come From?

Thursday June 2

Friday June 3

Saturday June 4

  • 5.30pm The Epsom Derby race takes place. The Queen and her family are expected to head to the racecourse on Derby Day, where the monarch is due to be greeted with a guard of honour.
  • 7.40pm Members of the Royal Family arrive at the BBCs Platinum Party at the Palace concert.
  • 8pm-10.30pm The open-air concert in front of the palace featuring stars including Queen + Adam Lambert, Alicia Keys, Duran Duran and Diana Ross is broadcast live on BBC One.

Sunday June 5

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When To Get The Flu Shot

Flu season typically runs from late fall to early spring.

Flu shots are now available for all Ontarians. You should get a flu shot as soon as possible because it takes two weeks to take effect.

The National Advisory Committee on Immunization now recommends that COVID-19 vaccines may be given at the same time as the flu vaccine.

Talk to your doctor or pharmacy to learn more.

Where Did The Spanish Flu Come From

Scientists still do not know for sure where the Spanish Flu originated, though theories point to France, China, Britain, or the United States, where the first known case was reported at Camp Funston in Fort Riley, Kansas, on March 11, 1918.

Some believe infected soldiers spread the disease to other military camps across the country, then brought it overseas. In March 1918, 84,000 American soldiers headed across the Atlantic and were followed by 118,000 more the following month.

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Can The Flu Be Prevented

There’s no guaranteed way to avoid the flu. But getting the flu vaccine can help. Everyone 6 months of age and older should get it every year.

Flu vaccines are available as a shot or as a nasal spray. Both work equally well. This flu season , get whichever vaccine your doctor recommends. People with weak immune systems or some health conditions and pregnant women should not get the nasal spray vaccine.

What else can you do? Wash your hands well and often. Avoid sharing cups, utensils, or towels with others. If you do catch the flu, use tissues whenever you sneeze or cough to avoid spreading the virus.

During the coronavirus pandemic, experts found that wearing masks can help protect the community from the spread of germs. They recommend that everyone wear a mask when out in public or around people who don’t live with them. Wearing masks can also help stop the spread of flu.

If you do get the flu this season, take care of yourself and call your doctor with any questions or concerns. When you’re feeling bad, remember that the flu usually lasts a week or less and you’ll be back to normal before too long.

What Is Tomato Flu A New Virus Detected In India

Where Do Viruses Come From


This infection was discovered in India, it mainly affects children While monkeypox is progressing in Europe, the tomato flu is making its first patients in India. Symptoms ? Red rashes mainly affecting children. 20 Minutes takes stock of this virus which worries but whose arrival in Europe remains hypothetical. Where does tomato flu come from? The tomato flu appeared a few weeks ago in India. According to India Today , more than 80 cases have been identified si

While monkeypox is progressing in Europe, the tomato flu is making its first patients in India.

Symptoms ?

Red rashes mainly affecting children.

20 Minutes

takes stock of this virus which worries but whose arrival in Europe remains hypothetical.

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When To Call 911

The flu can quickly take a turn for the worse and may require emergency care. If you experience any of the following symptoms, seek immediate medical attention, as these may be a sign of serious or life-threatening complications:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
  • Persistent dizziness, confusion, inability to arouse
  • Seizures
  • A fever above 105 F that does not respond to medication

In children, seek immediate medical attention for these symptoms:

  • Fast breathing or trouble breathing
  • Bluish lips or face

Why Does The 2009 H1n1 Flu Virus Have Genes From Humans Birds And From Pigs On Different Continents

Pigs can be infected by influenza viruses found in birds and other animals as well as people. Therefore, pigs represent a mixing vessel in which influenza viruses from different species can swap genes. For example, in a setting where people and animals are in close contact, pigs can be infected by influenza viruses found in pigs, poultry or humans sometimes at the same time. For at least 80 years, influenza viruses known as classical swine H1N1 viruses have circulated in North American pigs. However, in the late 1990s, a series of reassortment events occurred between influenza viruses found in pigs, humans and birds. As a result, swine influenza viruses with genes from humans, North American pigs and birds have existed in many parts of the world for around 10 years prior to 2009 H1N1 flu. Mixing of these triple reassortant North American swine influenza viruses with Eurasian swine viruses likely resulted in the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus.

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Choosing The Strains For The Flu Vaccine

Creating the influenza vaccine this year has been more difficult than in the past.

Every year, scientists evaluate the strains of influenza that are circulating around the world, and meet to decide which strains to protect against in that years vaccine. They look at the strains that are getting people sick, and use that information to predict which strains are most likely to infect people when flu season sets in.

We met at the end of February to make those recommendations, said Dr. Webby, referring to the World Health Organization panel that assesses the flu vaccine. And it was tricky. The amount of data was orders of magnitude less than it typically is.

Dr. Olsen, the C.D.C. epidemiologist, pointed out that the vaccine choices are based on more than just existing strains. Scientists also consider other data, including forecasts of the likelihood of any emerging groups of influenza viruses becoming more prevalent in coming months.

And, she said, the uncertainty around the return of influenza makes getting vaccinated against the flu more important, not less.

Theres another hard-to-predict factor that could play a significant role when the flu comes back: whether society will carry on behaviors learned in the pandemic that benefit public health. Will mask-wearing become the norm? Will employers give their employees more physical space?

The last time Americans had a chance to make those behaviors part of the culture, Dr. Baker pointed out, they did not.

Where Does Tomato Flu Come From

Why Does the Flu Come Back Every Year?

The tomato flu appeared a few weeks ago in India.

According to

India Today

, more than 80 cases have been identified since May 6 in children.

It is also the Indian media who have nicknamed this virus, the origin of which is unknown for the moment.

Two hypotheses have been put forward: a link with monkeypox, of which it shares symptoms, or a new form of “foot-hand-mouth”, a very common infection in young children.

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What Time Is The Platinum Jubilee Flypast

The flypast is expected to reach Buckingham Palace around 1pm, when it is hoped that the Queen will join the royal family on the balcony to observe the spectacle.

Here are the timings :

  • Area A between 11.45am and 1pm
  • Area B between 12.15pm and 1.15pm
  • Area C between 12.30pm and 1.15pm
  • Area D between 12.30pm and 1.15pm
  • Area E between 12.40pm and 1.15pm
  • Area F between 12.50pm and 1.30pm
  • Area G between 12.50pm and 1.30pm
  • Area H between 12.50pm and 1.30pm
  • Area I between 12.50pm and 1.30pm

More on Platinum Jubilee

How Influenza Vaccines Are Made

For the United States there are three different influenza vaccine production technologies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration external icon:

  • egg-based flu vaccine,
  • cell-based flu vaccine, and
  • recombinant flu vaccine.

All commercially available flu vaccines in the United States are made by private sector manufacturers. Different manufacturers use different production technologies, but all flu vaccines meet FDA safety and effectiveness requirements. Different vaccines have different indications. See Different Types of Flu Vaccines for more information.

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How Is Flu Spread

The flu virus is spread from person to person through respiratory secretions and typically sweeps through large groups of people who spend time in close contact, such as in daycare facilities, classrooms, college dormitories, military barracks, offices, and nursing homes.

Flu is spread when you inhale droplets in the air that contain the flu virus, make direct contact with respiratory secretions through sharing drinks or utensils, or handle items contaminated by an infected person. In the latter case, the flu virus on your skin can infect you when you touch or rub your eyes, nose, or mouth. That’s why frequent and thorough handwashing is a key way to limit the spread of influenza. Flu symptoms start to develop from one to four days after infection with the virus.

Occasionally A New Flu Strain Will Appear Such As The H1n1 Strain In 2009

Coronavirus: where do new viruses come from?

This causes a higher-than-normal incidence or severity of flu. The H1N1 strain is still active and it makes up part of the flu vaccine developed for this coming year.

The fact that the flu changes from one year to the next is not a cause for concern, especially if you get vaccinated. Plus, getting your flu shot every year helps you increase your immunity to a number of different flu strains and not just the three most common strains that are active this year.

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Flu Vaccine: A Moving Target

Shortly after scientists identified the influenza A virus, researchers began work on creating a flu vaccine, with the first clinical trials commencing in the mid-1930s.

Given the high death toll of World War I soldiers to the flu, the U.S. military was highly interested in a flu vaccine. During World War II, U.S. soldiers were part of field tests on the safety and efficacy of the new vaccine.

But during these 19421945 tests, scientists discovered influenza type B, necessitating a new bivalent vaccine that protects against both H1N1 and the influenza B virus.

After the Asian flu pandemic arose in 1957, a new vaccine protecting against H2N2 was developed. WHO monitored the circulating influenza virus strains in various countries to determine which flu vaccine would be needed in an upcoming season.

During the 1978 pandemic, scientists developed the first trivalent flu vaccine, which protected against one strain of influenza A/H1N1, one strain of influenza virus A/H3N2 and a type B virus. Most U.S.-licensed seasonal flu vaccines since then have been trivalent.

In 2012, the first quadrivalent flu vaccine that protects against an additional influenza B virus was approved for use.

Scientists at WHO and its collaborating centers determine which strains to vaccinate against based on how the viruses have mutated in the past year and how they are spreading, with different vaccines needed for the Northern and Southern hemisphere.

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