Friday, September 29, 2023

Which Flu Vaccines Are Live

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Can I Get A Flu Shot For Free

Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV)

With a little time and research, chances are you can get a flu shot without any out-of-pocket expense. You pay nothing for a flu shot if your doctor or other qualified health care provider accepts Medicares assignment for giving the shot.

Many state Medicaid agencies also cover some adult immunizations for beneficiaries. To find out if your program provides the flu vaccine at no cost, check with your state office for more information.

Even if your insurance, Medicare or Medicaid providers dont have vaccines available, you may be able to be inoculated at no charge through your local health department.

How The Influenza Vaccine Works

The influenza viruses change every year because the influenza virus has a unique ability to change its surface structure. This means that even if you had the flu or an immunisation one year, your bodys immune system might be unable to fight the changed version of the virus that will be circulating the following year.

Each year, a new vaccine is developed and is available for those who wish to be immunised. The seasonal flu vaccine includes protection against four strains of influenza viruses.

The flu vaccine cannot give you the flu because it does not contain live virus. Some people may still contract the flu because the vaccine may not always protect against all strains of the influenza virus circulating in the community.

How Effective Is The Nasal Spray Seasonal Flu Vaccine

Flu vaccine effectiveness can vary from year to year, among different age and risk groups, by vaccine type, and even by virus type and subtype. Prior to the 2009 flu pandemic, the nasal spray vaccine was found to be effective against different flu viruses. After the 2009 pandemic, several U.S. studies among 2 through 17-year-olds found that the nasal spray vaccine was as effective against influenza B viruses and influenza A viruses as inactivated influenza vaccines but was less effective than inactivated flu vaccines against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. These data led ACIP and CDC to recommend against use of the nasal spray vaccine for the 2016-17 and 2017-18 seasons.

Since the 2017-2018 season, the manufacturer of nasal spray vaccine has used new influenza A vaccine virus ingredients in production. Because of limited use, there have been no effectiveness estimates in the United States since LAIV was recommended again in the 2018-2019 influenza season. Data from other countries have demonstrated protection from LAIV to be similar to that of standard-dose, egg-based inactivated flu vaccine in children.

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Pregnant Women And Neonates

Both ACIP and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season receive an inactivated influenza vaccineas soon as it is available. Because pregnant women are at high risk of serious flu complications, CDC recommends influenza vaccination during any trimester of pregnancy .

Influenza is more likely to cause severe illness in pregnant women than in women who are not pregnant, particularly during the second and third trimesters. Changes in the immune system, heart, and lungs during pregnancy make pregnant women more prone to severe illness from flu, including illness resulting in hospitalization. Flu also may be harmful for a pregnant womans developing baby. A common flu symptom is fever, which may be associated with neural tube defects and other adverse outcomes for a developing baby .

Numerous studies have shown that flu vaccination protects pregnant women during and after pregnancy and also protects babies from flu infection for several months after birth, before the child is old enough to be vaccinated .

Millions of flu vaccines have been given for decades, including to pregnant women. Numerous studies, including clinical trials and observational studies, and data from vaccine safety monitoring systems have demonstrated consistently the safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy .

Iv2 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

Flu Vaccine Doing a Relatively Good Job This Season  NBC Los Angeles

LAIV contains standardized quantities of FFU of live attenuated influenza virus reassortants. The virus strains in LAIV are cold-adapted and temperature sensitive, so they replicate in the nasal mucosa rather than the lower respiratory tract, and they are attenuated, so they do not produce ILI. There have been no reported or documented cases, and no theoretical or scientific basis to suggest transmission of vaccine virus would occur to the individual administering LAIV. As a live replicating whole virus formulation administered intranasally, it elicits mucosal immunity, which may more closely mimic natural infection.

Vaccine currently authorized for use:

  • FluMist® Quadrivalent
Efficacy and effectiveness

After careful review of the available Canadian and international LAIV VE data over many influenza seasons, NACI concluded that the current evidence is consistent with LAIV providing comparable protection against influenza to that afforded by IIV and does not support a recommendation for the preferential use of LAIV in children 2-17 years of age.

Refer to the Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2018-2019 for detailed information supporting this recommendation.


LAIV4 has shown non-inferiority based on immunogenicity compared to LAIV3 in both children and adults. The immune response to the B strain found only in the quadrivalent formulation was better in children who received the quadrivalent vaccine Footnote 158, Footnote 159, Footnote 160.


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Iv Vaccine Preparations Authorized For Use In Canada: Additional Information

The following sections describe information on the efficacy and effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of influenza vaccines that are authorized for use in Canada by type: IIV and LAIV. Refer to Appendix A for a summary of the characteristics of specific influenza vaccine products available in Canada for the 2020-2021 season.

NACI acknowledges that evidence related to influenza vaccine performance, particularly with respect to vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, is constantly evolving with advances in research methodology and accumulation of data over many influenza seasons. Therefore, the evidence summarized in this section may not include the latest studies. However, in accordance with usual practice, NACI continues to closely monitor the emerging evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of influenza vaccines to update and to make recommendations when warranted.

Does A Person With Dementia Or Their Caregiver Get Any Special Benefit

If youve ever sat in the hospital with someone with dementia who becomes more confused because of the unfamiliar location, Goebel said, you know how important to prevent illness and hospitalization. If you can prevent hospitalization with a simple shot that really doesnt have a lot of side effects, its definitely worth it.

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Who Should Not Get The Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

Children less than 2 years of age, and people who are pregnant, or planning to become pregnant, should not get the vaccine.

Speak with your health care provider if your child:

  • Has an immune system weakened by disease or medical treatment
  • Has severe asthma or active wheezing
  • Had a life-threatening reaction to a previous dose of influenza vaccine, or any part of the vaccine
  • Developed Guillain-Barré Syndrome within 8 weeks of getting any influenza vaccine without another cause being identified
  • Is required to take Aspirin® or ASA for long periods of time due to a medical condition
  • Is receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor to treat cancer

People who will have contact with anyone who has a very weak immune system, such as a bone marrow transplant patient, within 2 weeks of being immunized should receive the inactivated influenza vaccine. If such contact can be avoided, they may receive LAIV.

There is no need to delay getting immunized because of a cold or other mild illness. However, if you have concerns speak with your health care provider.

People At High Risk Of Complications From The Flu

Flu Vaccine Facebook Live with Tamara Sheffield
  • people with health conditions, such as:
  • cancer and other immune compromising conditions
  • kidney disease
  • neurological or neurodevelopmental conditions
  • children up to 18 years of age undergoing treatment for long periods with acetylsalicylic acid
  • people 65 years and older
  • people who live in nursing homes or other long-term care facilities
  • children under 5 years of age
  • people who experience barriers in accessing health care
  • people who are at an increased risk of disease because of living conditions, such as overcrowding
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    How Effective Is The Nhs Flu Immunisation Programme

    The flu vaccine works better in some years than others . Across all age groups including children, the flu vaccine prevented 15-52% of flu cases between 2015 – 2020 . Due to low levels of circulating influenza in the 2020-21 flu season, it has not been possible to determine vaccine effectiveness for this time period.

    Protection from the flu virus varies for different age groups. In children aged 2-17, the flu vaccine prevented 66% of flu cases in 2016-17, 27% of flu cases in 2017-18, and 49% of flu cases in 2018-19. However, in the over 65 age group the inactivated flu vaccine worked less well than it did in other adults and children. In 2016-17, the data suggest that the inactivated flu vaccine did not work at all in people aged over 65, whilst in 2017-2018 it resulted in slightly better results in that age group. Due to the lower effectiveness of the inactivated flu vaccine in older people, a vaccine containing an adjuvant was introduced for the 2018-19 season. This is a substance that strengthens and lengthens the immune response to the vaccine and resulted in better prevention of flu in people aged 65 or over in flu seasons since 2018-19. The adjuvanted vaccine is still recommended for this age group in the 2022-23 season.

    It is not understood why flu vaccines do not work so well in older adults. However, this reinforces the importance of vaccinating children and healthcare workers, both of whom can help to stop the spread of flu to older adults.

    Achilles’ Heels Of The Current Influenza Vaccines

    The success of current influenza vaccination campaigns depends heavily on extensive surveillance and manufacturing resources to ensure timely vaccine delivery. Given that each component of the vaccine is updated every 2 to 3 years on average, it is not too surprising that there are occasional problems. Some of the Achilles’ heels of the current influenza vaccine pipelines and the strategies needed to address them are summarized as follows.

  • Variable efficacy in specific populations. Influenza vaccines are relatively poorly immunogenic and do not induce long-lasting serum antibody titers. In the elderly, waning immunity also means poor responsiveness to vaccines. Therefore, strategies are required to improve the immune response to vaccine, especially in various at-risk target populations.
  • Variable virus. Antigenic matching between vaccine strains and circulating strains is critical. Current strategies to address this include improvement of global surveillance and the development of new-generation vaccines that target conserved regions of the virus.
  • Limited vaccine availability in resource-limited countries. Although not specific for influenza vaccines, there is great disparity in vaccine availability in countries throughout the world. More scalable platforms and cheaper vaccines that induce longer-lasting immunity are needed to address this need.
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    Who Should Not Get The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine

    Some people should not get the nasal spray flu vaccine:

    • Children younger than 2 years old
    • Adults 50 years and older
    • People with a history of severe allergic reaction to any ingredient of the vaccine or to a previous dose of any flu vaccine
    • Children 2 through 17 years old who are receiving aspirin- or salicylate-containing medications.
    • Children 2 through 4 years old who have asthma or who have had a history of wheezing in the past 12 months
    • People with weakened immune systems from any cause
    • People who care for severely immunocompromised persons who require a protected environment
    • People without a spleen, or with a non-functioning spleen
    • Pregnant people
    • People with an active leak between the cerebrospinal fluid and the mouth, nose, ear, or other place within the skull
    • People with cochlear implants
    • People who have taken flu antiviral drugs within a certain amount of time.

    In addition, the following medical conditions are precautions to the use of the nasal spray flu vaccine:

    • Asthma in people 5 years and older.
    • Other underlying medical conditions that can put people at higher risk of serious flu complications. These include conditions such as lung disease, heart disease , kidney disease , kidney or liver disorders, neurologic/neuromuscular, or metabolic disorders. People at Higher Risk of Developing FluRelated Complications.
    • Moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever.
    • Guillain-Barré Syndrome within 6 weeks following a previous dose of flu vaccine.

    If Wild Card Covid Variant Comes: Fauci On How Vaccination Programmes Will Shape Out In Future

    Flu shot ingredients: What they contain and why

    1 min read.Livemint

    Covid vaccinations will likely shift to an annual shot, officials said adding, more frequent doses will be offered for higher-risk people

    Listen to this article

    Covid-19 vaccines will eventually become an annual vaccination event like flu shots, Anthony Fauci, President Joe Bidens health adviser said at a time when administration is urging Americans to take newly authorized booster shots specific to omicron subvariants.

    Anthony Fauci, a Biden Covid adviser who heads the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said, We likely are moving towards a path with a vaccination cadence similar to that of the annual influenza vaccine.”

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    Covid vaccinations will likely shift to an annual shot, officials said adding, more frequent doses will be offered for higher-risk people.

    Fauci cautioned that a sharp change in the virus could alter the interval at which doses are deployed.

    If a wild card variant comes in, all bets are off,” Fauci said, referring to the protection currently offered by the modified vaccines produced by Pfizer Inc. and Moderna Inc.

    Ashish Jha, who serves as Bidens Covid czar, said officials expect people to get boosters throughout the fall, including in routine doctor visits or at the same time as receiving a flu shot. The modified boosters will be widely available by the end of this week.

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    Managing Side Effects After Immunisation

    Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required. There are several treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:

    • Drinking extra fluids and not overdressing if there is a fever.
    • Although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if pain and fever are present, paracetamol can be given check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist .

    What Should I Do If I Think I Am Having A Severe Reaction To A Flu Vaccine

    If you think it is a severe allergic reaction or other emergency that cant wait, call 9-1-1 and get to the nearest hospital. Otherwise, call your doctor.

    Afterward, the reaction should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System . Your doctor might file this report, or you can do it yourself through the VAERS websiteexternal icon, or by calling 1-800-822-7967.

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    How Effective Is The Flu Vaccine

    The flu vaccine gives the best protection against flu.

    Flu vaccines help protect against the main types of flu viruses, although there’s still a chance you might get flu.

    If you do get flu after vaccination, it’s likely to be milder and not last as long.

    Having the flu vaccine will also reduce the chance of you spreading flu to other people who may be more at risk of serious problems from flu.

    It can take 10 to 14 days for the flu vaccine to work.

    Importance Of Getting A Flu Shot

    Childhood Flu – live virus in vaccine

    Although were all used to living with the flu, it has serious health implications. Getting the vaccine is a way to keep you and those around you healthy. Heres why:

    • It reduces risk of infection: The flu vaccine reduces your risk of infection by up to 60%. That can help stop the spread to those you love and anyone you encounter.
    • It reduces severity of illness: If you do contract the flu, youre less likely to need hospitalization. If you end up in the hospital, youre less likely to need intensive care.
    • It can prevent complications from chronic health problems: People with heart disease are less likely to have a cardiac event when theyre vaccinated. Being vaccinated is also associated with fewer complications from diabetes and chronic lung disease.
    • It helps protect you during pregnancy: Getting vaccinated reduces the risk of a pregnant person being hospitalized for flu by 40%. The vaccine can also offer protection to the baby during the first few months of life, when a child is not yet eligible for vaccination.

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    Can The Flu Shot Get You Sick

    No, the flu shot cannot cause you to get the flu. If you experience the flu after getting your vaccine, you were likely exposed before getting your shot. It takes about two weeks after getting the vaccine to be fully protected, so you can still contract the flu during that time.

    Although the flu shot cant make you sick with influenza, it can lead to side effects. These are usually mild and include soreness at the infection site, aches, fever and feeling tired. In most cases these resolve within a day.

    What About People Who Get A Seasonal Flu Vaccine And Still Get Sick With Flu Symptoms

    There are several reasons why someone might get flu symptoms, even after they have been vaccinated against flu.

  • One reason is that some people can become ill from other respiratory viruses besides flu such as rhinoviruses, which are associated with the common cold. These viruses can cause symptoms similar to flu, and also spread and cause illness during flu season. Flu vaccines only protect against flu and its complications, not other illnesses.
  • Another explanation is that it is possible to be exposed to flu viruses, shortly before getting vaccinated or during the two-week period after vaccination that it takes the body to develop immune protection. This exposure may result in a person becoming sick with flu before protection from vaccination takes effect.
  • A third reason why some people may experience flu symptoms despite getting vaccinated is that they may have been exposed to a flu virus that is very different from the vaccine viruses. The ability of a flu vaccine to protect a person depends largely on the similarity or match between the vaccine viruses chosen to make vaccine and those spreading and causing illness. There are many different flu viruses that spread and cause illness among people. For more information, see Influenza Viruses.
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